Biochemical Indices and Haematological Studies of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Persea americana Leaf in Albino Rats

Main Article Content

J. A. Mashi
A. M. Sa’id
F. Bello
H. M. Yakasai
B. Bello
R. I. Idris


The aim of this present study was to evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate extract of P. americana (avocado) on liver and kidney function, lipid profile as well as haematological parameters in albino rats. A total of 20 albino rats were used for this experiment and they were divided into four groups of 5 (A-D) rats each. Group A served as normal control, group B-D served as experimental groups administered with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of ethyl acetate extract of Persea americana leaf per day for 4 weeks respectively. This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Bayero University, Kano, in the month of May, 2018. Liver function test (colorimetric method), kidney indices and lipid profile (spectrophotometry method), and hematological examination (SYSMEX XE-2000) were analysed. Administration of ethyl acetate extract did not produced significant effect on liver and kidney indices in all the treated groups. The extract significantly (P=.05) decrease total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein in all the treated groups. Haematological parameters analysed were not significantly affected in all the treated groups. Thus, ethyl acetate extract of P. americana leaf possesses hypolipidemic potentials and relatively safe for kidney, liver and hematological indices but extremely high doses may not be advisable.

P. americana, liver function test, kidney function test, lipid profile, haematological parameters.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mashi, J. A., Sa’id, A. M., Bello, F., Yakasai, H. M., Bello, B., & Idris, R. I. (2019). Biochemical Indices and Haematological Studies of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Persea americana Leaf in Albino Rats. Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, 4(4), 1-10.
Original Research Article


Mashi JA, Atiku MK, Bala M, Sa’id AM, Idris RI, Babandi A, Babagana K, et al. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic properties of ethyl acetate fraction of P. americana leaf in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. IJBBMB; 2018. In Press.
DOI: 10.11648/j.xxxx.2018xxxx.xx

Mashi JA, Atiku. MK, Shehu D, Sa’id AM, Idris RI, Dangambo MA, Babagana K, Ya’u M, Babandi A. et al. Comparative study of different solvents extract of Persea americana leaf on alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats. Asian J. Biol. Sci. 2019a;12:67-72.

Tapsell LC, Hemphill I, Cobiac L. Health benefits of herbs and spices: The past, the present, the future. Med J Aust. 2006;185(4):S4–24.

Lai PK., Roy J. Antimicrobial and chemopreventive properties of herbs and spices. Curr Med Chem. 2004;11(11): 1451–1460.

Tene Tcheghebe O, Nyamen LD, Ngouafong Tatong F, Seukep AJ. Ethnobotanical uses, phytochemical and pharmacological profiles, and toxicity of Persea americana mill. An overview. 2016;3:213-221.

Oluwole S, Yusuf K, Fajana O, Olaniyan D. Qualitative studies on proximate analysis and characterization of oil from Persea americana (Avocado Pear). Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2013;3(2):68-73.

Brai BI, Odetola AA, Agomo PU. Hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic potential of Persea americana leaf extracts. J Med Food. 2007;10:356–360.

Mashi JA, Sa’id AM, Idris RI, Aminu I, Muhammad AA, Inuwa IM. Phytochemical, radical scavenging and oxidative stress potentials of ethyl acetate extract of P. americana leaf in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats. Journal of Applied Sciences; 2019b. In Press: 95063-JAS-ANSI.

Mahadeva Rao US. Phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant and anti-diabetic potentials of Persea americana mill. (Lauraceae) fruit extract. Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2018;3(5):38-45.

Lu QY, Arteaga JR, Zhang Q, Huerta S, Go VL, Heber D. Inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by an avocado extract: Role of lipid-soluble bioactive substances. J Nutr Biochem. 2005;16:23–30.

Nayak BS, Raju SS, Chalapathi Rao AV. Wound healing activity of Persea americana (avocado) fruit: A preclinical study on rats. J Wound Care. 2008;17: 123–126.

Kawagishi H, Fukumoto Y, Hatakeyama M. Liver injury suppressing compounds from avocado (Persea americana). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 2001;32(4):128-131.

Adeyemi OO, Okpo SO, Ogunti OO. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of leaves of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae). Fitoterapia. 2002;73:375–380.

Odetola AA, Akinloye O, Egunjobi C, Adekunle WA, Ayoola AO. Possible anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effect of fermented Parkia biglobosa extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. 2006;33(4):808-812.

Owolabi MA, Jaja SI, Coker HA. Vasorelaxant action of aqueous extract of the leaves of Persea americana on isolated thoracic rat aorta. Fitoterapia. 2005;76:567–573.

Ojewole JA, Kamadyaapa DR, Gondwe MM, Moodley K, Musabayane CT. Cardiovascular effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) aqueous leaf extract in experimental animals. Cardiovasc J Afr. 2007;18:69–76.

Ozolua RI, Anaka ON, Okpo SO, Idogun SE. Acute and sub-acute toxicological assessment of the aqueous seed extract of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) in rats. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2009;6(4):573–578.

Larrey D. Liver involvement in the course of phytotherapy. Presse Med. 1994;23: 691–693.

Ernst E. The efficacy of herbal medicine – an overview. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2005;19:405–409.

Jagdish CN, Lalit SC. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Breynia vitis-idaea. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2016;8(3):396-404.

Reitman S, Frankel SA. Colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxaloacetate and glutamic pyruvic transaminase. Amer. J. Clin. Patho. 1957;28:56-58.

Rec GSCC. Colorimetric method for serum alkaline phosphatase determination. J. Clin. Biochem. 1972;10(2):182.

Grant GH. Amino acids and proteins; Fundamentals of clinical chemistry. Tietz N.W. Editor, 3rd Edition, WB Saunders Company Philadelphia USA. 2014;328-329.

Tietz NW. Clinical guide to laboratory tests. Second Edition W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, USA. 1987;554-556.

Weatherburn MW. Determination of serum urea. Analytical Chemistry. 1967;39:971.

Bartels H, Bohmer MA. Colorimetric method for determination of serum creatinine. Clinica Chimica Acta, 1972;37: 193.

Henry JB. Clinical diagnosis and management by laboratory methods. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA.: W. B. Saunders Company. 2001;186-193.

Kraut JA, Madias NE. Serum anion gap: Its uses and limitations in clinical medicine. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2007;2(1):162-174.

White WL. Chemistry for technologist. 3rd Edition. The C.V. Mosby Co., St. Louis. 1970;182.

Forrester RI, Wataji, IJ, Silverman DA, Pierre KJ. Enzymatic method for determination of CO2 in serum. Journal of Clinical Chemistry. 1976;22:243.

Lothar T. Clinical laboratory diagnostic. 1st Edition TH-Books Verlagsgesellschaft mbh, Frankfurt/ Main, Germany. 1998;169.

Jacobs D, Kasten BL, De Mott WR, Wolfson WL. Laboratory and test handbook. Lexi-company Inc: Hudson (Cleveland). 1990;219.

Friedewald WT, Levy IR, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of this concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasms, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clinical Chemistry. 1972; 18(6):206-228.

Karthikeyan S, Gobianand K, Pradeep K, Mohan CV, Balasubramanian MP. Biochemical changes in serum, lung, heart and spleen tissues of mice exposed to sub-acute toxic inhalation of mosquito repellent mat vapour. Journal of Environ-mental Biology. 2006;27(5):355-358.

Mosa RA. Some bioactivity of Triterpenes from stem bark of Protorhus longifolia and their derivatives. Planta Med. 2014;6(2): 50-58.

Mathew Folaranmi Olaniyan. Effect of liquid extract of pear avocado leaf (Persea americana) on plasma levels of aminotransferases, cholesterol and total bile acids in hypertensive patients. American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 2014;4(3):87-91.

Omodamiro OD, Jimoh MA, Ewa IC. Hepatoprotective and haemopoeitic activity of ethanol extract of Persea americana seed in paracetamol induced toxicity in wistar albino rat. Human Journals. 2016;5(3):149-165.

Yamasaki T, Sato M, Mori T, Mohammed AM, Fujii K, Tsukioka J. Toxicity of tannins towards the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Journal of Natural Toxin. 2000;11(3):165-171.

Haeri MR, Izaddoost M, Ardekani MR, Nobar MR, White KN. The effect of fenugreek 4-hydroxyisoleucine on liver function biomarkers and glucose in diabetic and fructose-fed rats. Phytother Res. 2009;23(1):61–64.

Olorunnisola OS, Bradley G, Afolayan AJ. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of methanolic extract of Tulbaghia violacea rhizomes in wistar rats. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009;11(83):14934-14940.

Yakubu MT, Bilbis LS, Lawal M, Akanji MA. Effect of repeated administration of sildenafil citrate on selected enzyme activities of liver and kidney of male albino rats. Niger. J. Pure Appl. Sci. 2003;18: 1395-4000.

Ilmie MU, Jaafar H, Mansor SM, Abdullah JM. Subchronic toxicity study of standardized methanolic extract of Mitragyna speciosa Korth in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Front. Neurosci. 2015;9:189.

Rahman A, Zareen S, Choudhary MI, Akhatar MN, Khan SN. Α- Glucosidase inhibitory activity of triterpenoids from Cichorium intybus. Journal of Natural Products. 2008;71:910-913.

Aliyu MS, Lawal U, Tijjani MB, Doko MH, Garba I, Kokya HA. Phytochemical and antibacterial properties of leaf extracts of Ipomoea asarifolia. Journal of Ethno-pharmacology. 2011;19:236–240.

Sreeshma LS, Nair BR. Brine shrimp lethality assay in two species of Biophytum Dc (Oxalidaceae). Innovare Academic Sciences. 2014;6(4):5-7.

Nimenibo-uadia R. Effect of aqueous extract of Canavalia ensiformis seeds on hyperlipidemic and hyperketonaemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Biokemistri. 2003;15(2):7-15.

Gouegni EF, Abubakar H. Phytochemical, toxicological, biochemical and haematological studies on Avocado (Persea americana) in experimental animals. NIFOJ. 2013;31(1):64-69.

James DB, Owolabi OA, Ibrahim AB, Folorunsho DF, Bwalla I, Akanta F. Changes in lipid profile of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Blighia sapida in rats. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2010;2(4):177-180.

Adeneye AA, Ajagbonna OP, Adeleke TI, Bello SO. Preliminary toxicity and phytochemical studies of the stem bark aqueous extract of Musanga cecropioides in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006;105(4):374-379.