Biochemical and Histological Changes Associated with Azo Food Dye (Tartrazine) in Male Albino Rats

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Ibioku Elekima
Ogechi Edna Nwachuku
Damion Ukwukwu
Harrison Ugo Nwanjo
Nsirim Nduka


Aim: To study the effect of chronic exposure of tartarzine at ADI doses on some biochemical parameters of male albino rats.

Study Design: The design involved chronic study. In the study, the experiment was divided into phase 1, 2, and 3 which lasted for 30, 60 and 90 days respectively. In each phase, 40 rats were used and were divided into treatment and control groups. The treated groups were given 7.5 mg/kg of tartrazine orally on daily basis over the stipulated periods while the control groups were not treated with tartrazine.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria within a period of 12 months (December 2017 – December 2018).

Methodology: At the end of the chronic study, 5mls of whole blood specimens was collected by means of cardiac puncture into Lithium Heparin bottles and fluoride oxalate bottles (for glucose only). The collected specimens were spun, plasma collected and analyzed for glucose, Lipase, AST, ALT, ALP, total protein, albumin and globulin. Renal, hepatic, and pancreatic tissues collected were fixed in 10% formol saline and later examined histologically using H&E stain. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism version 5.03 (San Diego, California, USA).

Results: In the chronic treatment, glucose indicated significant increases after 30, 60, and 90 days of chronic treatment at ADI doses. Urea, AST, and ALT showed significantly higher values after 60 of treatment while creatinine, ALP, total protein, albumin and globulin indicated significantly higher values after 90 days of treatment. However, lipase did not show any significant difference after 30, 60, and 90 days of treatment. Histologically, hepatic distortions such as fatty degeneration, vacuolation, pcynosis, and compression of central vein were seen in the liver section. In the renal section, hyaline cast in proximal tubules, hypercellularity of messengial cells, and inflammation of the glomerulus were observed in the treated rats while the histology of the pancreas indicated mild vacuolation of the islet region. However, the pancreatic ducts and acinar cells were not distorted.

Conclusion: The administration of tartrazine over a period of 30 days at ADI dose did not indicate hepatocellullar and renal derangements as well histological distortions in liver, pancreas and kidneys.  However, after 60 and 90 days, mild hepatocellular, pancreatic, and renal derangements were seen.

Tartrazine, lipase, pancreas, liver function, renal function, protein and globulins

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How to Cite
Elekima, I., Nwachuku, O., Ukwukwu, D., Nwanjo, H., & Nduka, N. (2019). Biochemical and Histological Changes Associated with Azo Food Dye (Tartrazine) in Male Albino Rats. Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, 5(1), 1-14.
Original Research Article