The Organ Distribution, Characterization and Modification of Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Adult African Grasshopper: Zonocerus sp Linn.

Main Article Content

E. A. Fajemisin
O. S. Bamidele
S. O. Ogunsola
E. A. Aiyenuro

Abstract

Aim: To determine the organ distribution and characterization of acetylcholinesterase in the adult African variegated grasshoppers – Zonocerus variegatus and Zonocerus elegans. (Zonocerus Sp. Linn)

Place and Duration of the Study: The insect model: African variegated grasshoppers are gotten from the Open green fields at the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria, and research was carried out between March and June, 2016 in the Enzymology laboratory, Biochemistry department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Methodology: Twenty (20) adults variegated grasshoppers were taken from the Open field in the University community, and taken to the Biology department for Identification. After identification, the specimen was weighed, freeze, dissected into fractions (Head, Thorax and Abdomen) and then homogenized to get the crude protein extract. The crude enzyme extract is further purified using the Ion-exchange chromatography with column bed packed with DEAE – Sephadex A50. The protein content of the purified AChE was determined using the Lowry method while the Acetylcholinesterase activity was determined by the Ellman’s assay procedures. The characterization of AChE was tested by modifying agent such as N-Bromo Succinamide (NBS) which confirms the presence of key aromatic proteins involve in catalysis at the active site of the enzyme.

Results: The protein concentration according to their fractions: Head (35.7%), Thorax (29.2%), and Abdomen (35.1%). The AChE activity according to their fractions: Head (38.6%), Thorax (23.7%), and Abdomen (37.7%). The specific activity which relates the AChE activity to protein content is given: Head (28.8%), Thorax (40.4%), and Abdomen (30.8%). From the Organ distribution and AChE activity, it was observed that the Head Fractions has the Highest protein content, and Enzyme activity. Comparatively, there are slight differences in the Enzyme activity of the Head and Abdominal fractions which represents the two peaks in the AChE chart. As well, the thorax has the highest specific activity. The modification by the chemical agent NBS shows a drastic decrease (about 50%) in Enzyme activity and characterize enzyme active site with aromatic proteins especially tryptophan residues.

Conclusion: Research findings shows the dominance of AChE protein in the Head region, hence high enzyme activity (useful for nervous coordination) as well as presence of tryptophan residues at the enzyme active site. The importance of research is useful in enzymology, neuroscience and public health.

Keywords:
African grasshopper, acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase, enzyme activity, Ion- exchange chromatography, N-BromoSuccinamide (NBS), protein concentration.

Article Details

How to Cite
Fajemisin, E. A., Bamidele, O. S., Ogunsola, S. O., & Aiyenuro, E. A. (2019). The Organ Distribution, Characterization and Modification of Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Adult African Grasshopper: Zonocerus sp Linn. Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, 5(4), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2019/v5i430097
Section
Original Research Article

References

Tukker AM, Wijnolts FM, de Groot A, Wubbolts RW, Westerink RH. In vitro techniques for assessing neurotoxicity using human iPSC-derived neuronal models. In Cell Culture Techniques. Humana, New York, NY. 2019;17-35.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9228-7_2

Câmara DF, Machado ML, Arantes LP, da Silva TC, da Silveira TL, Leal JG, et al. MPMT-OX up-regulates GABAergic transmission and protects against seizure-like behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans. Neurotoxicology; 2019.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2019.08.001

Hajiasgharzadeh K, Sadigh‐Eteghad S, Mansoori B, Mokhtarzadeh A, Shanehbandi D, Doustvandi MA, et al. Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in lung inflammation and carcinogenesis: Friends or foes? Journal of Cellular Physiology; 2019.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28220

Florea AM, Taban J, Varghese E, Alost BT, Moreno S, Büsselberg D. Lead (Pb2+) neurotoxicity: Ion-mimicry with calcium (Ca2+) impairs synaptic transmission. A review with animated illustrations of the pre-and post-synaptic effects of lead. Journal of Local and Global Health Science. 2013;1(4):1-38.

Florea AM, Taban J, Varghese E, Alost BT, Moreno S, Büsselberg D. Lead (Pb2+) neurotoxicity: Ion-mimicry with calcium (Ca2+) impairs synaptic transmission. A review with animated illustrations of the pre-and post-synaptic effects of lead. Journal of Local and Global Health Science. 2013;1(4):1-38.

Valdez CA, Nicholas AB, Malfatti MA, Enright HA, Bennion BJ, Carpenter TS, et al. U.S. Patent Application No. 16/198,627; 2019.

Costa LG. Central nervous system toxicity biomarkers. In Biomarkers in Toxicology. Academic Press. 2019;173-185.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814655-2.00010-4

Ayvazyan NM, O’Leary VB, Dolly JO, Ovsepian SV. Neurobiology and therapeutic utility of neurotoxins targeting postsynaptic mechanisms of neuro-muscular transmission. Drug Discovery Today; 2019.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2019.06.012

Bittner EA, Martyn JJ. Neuromuscular physiology and pharmacology. In Pharmacology and Physiology for Anesthesia. Elsevier. 2019;412-427.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-48110-6.00021-1

Bittner EA, Martyn JJ. Neuromuscular physiology and pharmacology. In Pharmacology and Physiology for Anesthesia. Elsevier. 2019;412-427.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-48110-6.00021-1

Song H. Biodiversity of Orthoptera. Insect Biodiversity: Science and Society. 2018;2: 245-279.

Bidau CJ. Patterns in Orthoptera biodiversity. I. Adaptations in ecological and evolutionary contexts. Journal of Insect Biodiversity. 2014;2(20):1-39.

Zhao X, Zhang J, Zhu KY. Chito-protein matrices in arthropod exoskeletons and peritrophic matrices. In Extracellular Sugar-Based Biopolymers Matrices. Springer, Cham. 2019;3-56.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-12919-4_1

Awasthi VB. Introduction to general and applied entomology. Scientific Publishers; 2016.

Dettner K. Defenses of water insects. In Aquatic Insects. Springer, Cham. 2019;191-262. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16327-3_9

Alia KB, Nadeem H, Rasul I, Azeem F, Hussain S, Siddique MH, Nasir S. Separation and purification of amino acids. In Applications of Ion Exchange Materials in Biomedical Industries Springer, Cham. 2019;1-11.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-06082-4_1

Shelke MM, Bidkar JS, Dama GY. Hplc: A simple and advance methods of separation and validation; 2019.
Available:https://doi.org/10.20959/wjpr20194-14508

McNair HM, Miller JM, Snow NH. Basic gas chromatography. John Wiley & Sons; 2019.

Kida M, Sato H, Okumura A, Igarashi H, Fujitake N. Introduction of DEAE Sepharose for isolation of dissolved organic matter. Limnology. 2019;20(2): 153-162.

Yang L, Ravikanthachari N, Marino-Perez R, Deshmukh R, Wu M, Rosenstein A, Andolfatto P. Predictability in the evolution of Orthopteran cardenolide insensitivity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 2019;374(1777):20180246.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0246

Vimalakkannan T, Reddy KR, Naveena P. Development and validation of new analytical method for the estimation of fluoxetine in bulk and dosage form by UV spectrophotometry. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis. 2019;1(2):36-39.

Hartenstein V. Development of the nervous system. The Oxford Handbook of Invertebrate Neurobiology. 2019;3:71.

DuBois BN, Amirrad F, Mehvar R. Kinetics of dextromethorphan-O-demethylase activity and distribution of CYP2D in four commonly-used subcellular fractions of rat brain. Xenobiotica. 2019;49(10):1133-1142.