Effect of Manihot esculenta and Manihot utilissima Cyanide Extract on Some Biochemical Parameters of Albino Rats

Main Article Content

Amodu Abuh
Reuben Agada
Dluya Thagariki

Abstract

Cassava roots (Manihot esculenta and Manihot utilissima) are largely consumed as staple food in African but contain a toxic compound, cyanogenic glycosides. This study evaluated the effect of Manihot esculenta and Manihot utilissima cyanide content on biochemical parameters and histological examination of male albino rats. A total of thirty rats were used for the acute toxicity study while thirty-five rats were used to determine the effect of Manihot esculenta and Manihot utilissima cyanide on biochemical and histological parameters. The results revealed that Manihot esculenta and Manihot utilissima cyanide were toxic to rats even at a lower dose (10 mg/kg body weight) and cause death. Studies on the cyanide concentration determined using the standard curve revealed a high amount of cyanide in Manihot esculenta compared to Manihot utilissima. Biochemical parameters determined include Aspartate transaminases (AST), Alanine transaminases (ALT), Alanine Phosphatase (ALP), Urea, Creatinine, Acid Phosphates, and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH). The results revealed a significant (p< 0.05) increase of AST, ALP, Creatinine, Acid Phosphates, and LDH on rats administered with Manihot esculenta cyanide compared to normal rats and Manihot utilissima cyanide while Manihot utilissima cyanide showed significant (p< 0.05) increase on the activity of AST, ALT, ALP, Urea, and Creatinine compared with normal rats. Histological examination of livers and kidneys of the rats revealed that rats administered with Manihot esculenta cyanide showed disruption of the liver and kidney cells with distorted hepatic portal areas and necrosis compared to rats fed with Manihot utilissima cyanide and normal rats. The deleterious effect of the hydrogen cyanide is more pronounced on the tissues of the rats treated with Manihot esculenta as compared to those treated with Manihot utilissima as depicted by the photomicrographs. This study, therefore, concluded that Manihot esculenta is toxic causing alteration on some biochemical and histological parameters, this toxicity was correlated to dysfunction of vital organs which are a reconfirmation of the need for adequate processing of certain food crops prior to consumption. Cassava is a rich source of cyanide, highly documented for its adverse effects on the living system.

Keywords:
Wistar rats, Cyanogenic glycosides, toxicity, Manihot esculenta, Manihot utilissima.

Article Details

How to Cite
Abuh, A., Agada, R., & Thagariki, D. (2020). Effect of Manihot esculenta and Manihot utilissima Cyanide Extract on Some Biochemical Parameters of Albino Rats. Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, 6(1), 13-28. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2020/v6i130108
Section
Original Research Article

References

Kwok J. Cyanide poisoning and cassava. Food safety focus. Incident focus.2008;19. Available:http://www.cfs.gov.hk/english/multimedia.

Cereda MP, Mattos MCY. Linamarin, the toxic compound of cassava. Journal of Venom Animal Toxins. 1996;2(1):134-139.

Wheately CC, Orrego JI, Sanchez T, Granados E. Quality evaluation of cassava core collection at CIAT. In: Roca AM Thro AM, (ed.). Proceedings of the First International Scientific Meeting of Cassava Biotechnology Network; CIAT, Cali Columbia. 1993;379-383.

Akanji AO, Famuyiwa OO. The effects of chronic cassava consumption, cyanide intoxication and protein malnutrition on glucose tolerance in growing rats. British Journal of Nutrition.1993;69(1):269-76.

Obeten KE, Udo-Affah G, Ndifon OO, Odey SA. 2017: Studies of morphology and serum biochemistry of the kidney of wistar rats treated with aqueous leaf extract of Cassava (Manihot esculenta). International Journal of Life and Science Scientific Research. 2017;3(4):1127-1131.

FAO. Bankable Investment Project Profile. Cassava Production, Processing and Marketing Project. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome. 2006;4.
Available:ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/ 008/ag065e/ag065e00.pdf

Carvalho LJCB. Biodiversidade e biotecnologia em mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crants). Anais doXI Congresso Brasileiro de Mandioca, Embrapa, Campo Grande; 2005.
Available:http://terere.cpao.embrapa.br/11cbm/_html/palestras/arquivoPDF/palestra_003.PDF

Cooke R. An enzymatic assay for the total cyanide content of cassava. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. London. 1978;29:345-352.

Behrens B, Karber G. Mathematics for naturalists and agriculturalists. PWN. Wars Zawa. 1983;218.

Andrew HF, Jacobson KA, Rose J, Zeller R. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of tissue and cell sections. Cold Spring Harbor Protocols; 2008.
DOI: 10.1101/pdb.prot4986

Thrall MA, Baker DC, Lassen ED. Veterinary hematology and clinical chemistry. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004.

Chen Q, Vasquez EJ, Moghaddas S, Hoppel CL, Lesnefsky EJ. Production of reactive oxygen species by mitochondria. Journal of Biology and Chemistry. 2003;278:36027-36031.

Environmental Protection Agency. Summary review of health effects associated with hydrogen cyanide, Health Issue Assessment Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment Office of Research and Development, US Environ-mental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA; 1990.

Food Standards Australia New Zealand. Cyanogenic Glycosides in Cassava and Bamboo Shoots, A Human Health Risk Assessment. Technical Report Series No. 28; 2004.

Adam SIY, Ahmed WAA. 2011. Evaluation of the toxicity of Manihot esculenta on wistar rats after Traditional Sudanese Processing. Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2011;6(4):418-426.

Larrey D. Epidemiology and individual susceptibility to adverse drug reactions affecting the liver. Sermon Liver Disease. 2002;22:145-155.

Awe EO, Kolawole OT. Synergistic hepatotoxic potential of Manihot esculenta crantz leaf extract on Paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. International Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2012;2(4):38-42.

Shah M, Depierre JW, Boyd EH. Evaluation of the effect of aqueous extract of Phyllantus plant against CCl4 induced liver damage in rats. 2002;39:333-337.

Nkosi CZ, Opoku AR, Terblanche SE. Effect of pumpkin seed protein isolate on the activity level of certain plasma enzymes in ccl4 induced liver injury in low protein fed rats. Physiological Research. 2005;19:341-345.

Wurochekke AU, Anthony AE, Obidah W. Biochemical effects on the liver and kidney of rats administered aqueous stem bark extract of Xemenia Americana. African Journal of Biotechnology.2008;7:2777-2780.

Suneetha K. Effects of endosulfan and fenvalerate on carbohydrate metabolism of the freshwater fish, L. rohita (Ham). International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012;4(1):262-268.

Bhattachary AR, Satpute RM, Hariharakrishnan J, Tripathi H, Saxena PB. Acute toxicity of some synthetic cyanogens in rats and their response to oral treatment with alpha-ketoglutarate. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2009;47:2314-2320.

David M, Ramesh H, Patil VK, Marigoudar SR, Chebbi SG. Sodium cyanide-induced modulations in the activities of some oxidative enzymes and metabolites in the fingerlings of C. Carpio (L). Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry. 2010;(92): 1841-1849.

Rees BB, Boily P, Williamson LAC. Exercise and hypoxia induced anaerobic metabolism and recovery: a student laboratory exercise using teleost fish. Advances in Physiology Education. 2009; 33:72-77.

Ogundele OM, Caxton-Martins EA, Ghazal OK, Jimoh OR. Neurotoxicity of cassava: Mode of cell death in the visual relay centers of adult Wistar rats. Journal of Cell and Animal Biology. 2010;4(8):119-124.

Sundaresan S, Nambisan B, Easwari ACS. Bitterness in cassava in relation to cyano-glucoside content. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1987;57:34-40.

Awe E, Kolawole O. Biochemical, hemato-logical and histopathological assessment of toxic effects of Manito esculenta Crantz leaf Aqueous Extract in Rats. International Journal of Pharmacological and Biological Sciences. 2013;4(3):228-235.

Okeke CU, Iweala E. Antioxidant profile of Dioscorea rotundata, Manihot esculenta, Aloe vera. Journal Medicinal Research and Technology. 2007;4-10.