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Background: Anemia is a condition in which there is a reduced number of red blood cells or haemoglobin and iron concentration in the body thereby leading to a decreased capacity of the blood to carry oxygen to the body tissues.
Objectives: The study was designed to investigate the effect of a combination of ethanol extract of Ficus capensis and Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in phenylhydrazine-induced anemic rats.
Methods: The animals were divided into five groups of five rats each. Group A served as normal control, Group B as anemic control, group C as standard drug control, groups D and E were treated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of combined ethanol leaf extract of F. capensis and C. aconitifolius respectively. Phenylhydrazine was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. for two days to induce anemia in rats. The administration of the extract lasted for 14 days after which the animals were sacrificed and blood obtained through cardiac puncture for kidney and liver biomarkers analyses.
Results: Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase, Alkaline phosphatase, Total bilirubin, Direct bilirubin and Kidney function parameters assayed in the anemic untreated group showed significant increases (p<0.05) compared to the normal rats which may be attributed to toxicity induced by phenylhydrazine. The groups treated with the ethanol extract at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight revealed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the liver function parameters compared to the anemic untreated group. The creatinine and urea levels of the anemic untreated group increased more than the that of the test groups although the increase was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: This study suggests that combined ethanol leaf extract of F. capensis and C. aconitifolius is safe and can be effective in the treatment and management of anemia.
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