Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry&nbsp;(ISSN: 2582-0516)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJRB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in the field of Biochemistry. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry en-US Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry 2582-0516 Evaluation of the Molluscicidal, Artemicidal and Cytotoxic Activities of the Lectin from Opuntia ficus-indica Cladodes (OfiL) <p><strong>Background: </strong><em>Biomphalaria glabrata</em> is an intermediate host for the larvae of <em>Schistosoma mansoni</em>, which is distributed widely in the tropics. <em>B. glabrata </em>control is important to minimize the spread of schistosomiasis and natural compounds have been sought for use against this disease. The <em>Artemia salina </em>bench-top bioassay has been used to investigate the ecotoxicity of many natural compounds, and its results also correlate well with the <em>in vitro</em> cytotoxicity of natural compounds to tumor cells.</p> <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To evaluate deleterious effects of the <em>Opuntia ficus-indica </em>lectin (OfiL) on <em>B. glabrata</em>,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <em>&nbsp;A. salina </em>and human cancer cell lines.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>OfiL was isolated following a previously established protocol. The effects of OfiL on &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<em>B. glabrata </em>were investigated by determining survival of adults as well as development and hatching of embryos. The concentration required to kill 50% (LC<sub>50</sub>) of <em>A. salina </em>nauplii was determined. The cytotoxicity was determined using the human cell lines Hep-2 (human larynx epidermoid carcinoma), NCI-H292 (human lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma) and K562 (chronic myelocytic leukemia).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The development of most embryos (92.5–97.5%) treated with 1, 10 and 100 µg/mL of OfiL was found to be delayed, and dead (2.2–3.3%) and malformed (0.3–5.2%) embryos were also observed. OfiL did not kill <em>B. glabrata </em>adults, but a high percentage (30–45%) of the embryos generated by snails incubated with the lectin exhibited malformations. OfiL exhibited toxicity against <em>A. salina </em>(LC<sub>50</sub>: 61.02 µg/mL) but did not display cytotoxicity against the tumor cell lines evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In conclusion, this study showed that OfiL can be a tool for schistosomiasis control that acts by impairing the viability of <em>B. glabrata </em>eggs and the fecundity of adult snails.</p> Giselly Maria de Sá Santana Lidiane Pereira de Albuquerque Emmanuel Viana Pontual Luanna Ribeiro Santos Silva Jaciana dos Santos Aguiar Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque Melo Thiago Henrique Napoleão Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 1 9 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v6i330116 Evaluation of Stress Enzymes Activities and Lipid Peroxidation in Heart Homogenates of Male Albino Rats Following the Administration of Diclofenac <p>Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are associated with an increase in cardiovascular events despite its uses in the therapeutic agent for the management of long- and short-term pain. Over the last years, evidence has accumulated showing that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress is no longer considered as a simple imbalance between the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but as a dysfunction of enzymes involved in ROS production. This study investigated the effect of diclofenac on the activity of oxidative stress enzymes as well as formation of lipid peroxidation. Male rats weighing about 100-120 g were divided into four groups: group one (control, feed+water) group two, group three and group four treated with different mg/kg/day of drugs (50 mg/kg/day, 100 mg/kg/day and 150 mg/kg/day) feed and water respectively for 7 days. Analysis on the effect of diclofenac on the activities of stress enzymes such as nicotine adenosine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogenase oxidase (NADPHoxidase), xanthine oxidase(XOD), catalase(CAT), superoxide dismutase(SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase as well as evaluation of lipid peroxidation by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) in the heart homogenate were carried out and the result showed a significant increase in each parameter given rise to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) if not moderated by the antioxidant defense can lead to cardiac impairment as a result of oxidative stress damage or injury. The result obtained implies that diclofenac (NSAIDs) affects the redox status of vascular tissues (heart tissues).</p> Felicia Nmeazi Okwakpam S. Abarikwu M. O. Monanu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 10 16 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v6i330117 Effect of Aqueous Stem Extract of Loranthus micranthus linn on Anti-microbial Sensitivity, Cytotoxicity, and In-vitro Anti-inflammatory Indices on Human Red Blood Cells <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The present study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous stem extract of <em>Loranthus micranthus (</em>African mistletoe) plant.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The Disc agar diffusion method was used for the antimicrobial susceptibility test of test organisms to determine the minimum zone of inhibition. The brine shrimp lethality test method was used in determining cytotoxicity, and the heat-induced membrane diffusion method was used for anti-inflammatory indices.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In this study, the antimicrobial activity was evaluated using <em>Escherichia Coli., Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, and <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>as test organisms which showed significant zones of inhibition at increasing concentrations (25, 50 and 100 mg/ml) of the plant extract. The result of the cytotoxic investigation after the use of brine shrimps as test organisms revealed that the plant was not toxic as the LC<sub>50</sub> did not fall within the concentrations used in this study. Also, the aqueous stem extract of <em>L. micranthus</em> showed significantly lower optical densities of hemoglobin compared to the corresponding standard (Aspirin) concentrations of 25, 50, 100, 200 and 300 µg/ml. This result was in agreement with the % protection of the experimental plant, which showed a significant increase with an increase in concentration, which implies that the aqueous stem extract of <em>L.micranthus</em> has anti-inflammatory effects.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It can, therefore, be concluded that the usage of the aqueous stem extract of <em>Loranthusmicranthus</em> as a therapeutic drug would exert health benefits by virtue of its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and less toxicity, proved in this study.</p> Chinedu E. Udekwu Shirley Ebhohon Raymond C. Ibeh Henry N. Ogbonna Ugonna D. Nwankpa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-29 2020-05-29 32 40 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v6i330119 Changes in Liver Function Enzymes in Plasmodium falciparum Infected Malaria Patients in Ajeromi General Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study is to determine the changes in liver function enzymes in <em>P. falciparum</em>-infected patients in Ajeromi ifelodun area of Lagos, Nigeria by examining changes in some liver enzymes: Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) obtained from newly diagnosed cases of malarial infection yet to be treated.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Seventy (70) human subjects comprising of 50 <em>P. falciparum </em>malarial infected and 20 non-infected (control) subjects between 10-60 years were selected for this study. Malaria positive subjects were divided into three groups based on the number of parasite per μl. Those that had parasitaemia below 10,000 parasites per μl were considered a mild infection, those that had parasitaemia above 10,000 parasites per μl were considered severe infections and those with parasitaemia below 1,000 parasites per μl were considered a low infection. RDT test and microscopy was carried out to ascertain the presence of <em>P.falciparum.</em> They were grouped based on age group, sex and level of parasitaemia.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Blood samples were collected for the determination of <em>P. falciparum</em>, level of parasitaemia and liver function enzymes Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP). <em>P. falciparum</em> was determined by Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) and microscopy.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There was a significant increase (<em>P &lt; 0.001</em>) in the mean level of serum Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) and a significant decrease in the mean level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the <em>P. falciparum</em>-infected patients compared to the control subjects. AST level was found to be significantly higher (<em>P&lt;0.001</em>) among age group (51- above) in the <em>P. falciparum</em> patients and significantly lower among age group (10-20) in the control subjects when compared to other age groups.</p> <p>ALT level was significantly higher (<em>P &lt; 0.001</em>) among age group (51- above) in the <em>P. falciparum</em> patients and significantly lower among age group (41-50) in the control subjects when compared to other age groups. ALP level was significantly higher (<em>P &lt; 0.001</em>) among age group (41-50) in the <em>P. falciparum</em> patients and significantly lower among age group (10-20) in the control subjects when compared to other age groups. AST and ALT were found to be significantly higher (<em>P &lt; 0.001</em>) in the high parasitaemia group when compared to the low and moderate parasitaemia group and they were also significantly higher in the moderate parasitaemia group than in the low parasitaemia group.ALP was significantly higher (<em>P &lt; 0.001</em>) in the moderate parasitaemia group when compared to the low and high parasitaemia group and they were only marginally lower in the high than in the low parasitaemia group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There was an elevated level of liver function enzymes in the<em> P. falciparum </em>patients than in the control subjects. This study shows that high parasitaemic patients are at greater risk of hepatic damage than the low parasitaemic group, hence early diagnosis and treatment of malaria are highly encouraged.</p> U. O. Ozojiofor O. O. Bankole I. O. Adedeji K. C. Onuh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 41 49 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v6i330120 Biological Applications of Isoniazid Derived Schiff Base Complexes: An Overview <p>Antibiotic resistance has been growing at an alarming rate and consequently the activity of antibiotics against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria has dropped dramatically day by day. In this sense there is a strong need to synthesis new substances that not only have good field of activity, but having new appliances of action. Inorganic compounds particularly metal complexes have played a significant role in the development of new metal based drugs. Like few compounds, isonicotinic acid hydrazide (Isoniazid INH) is well known as first-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug to treat TB infection worldwide for more than 60 years. Unfortunately, people are only dependent on this drug and consequently, the rate of use of this drug has been increasing day by day. As the bacterial strains resistant to isoniazid are getting same for the long-term extensive use and even abuse so there is an urgent need to synthesis new drugs not only for anti-tuberculosis properties but also for having significant activity in various biological areas with mechanisms of action. Isoniazid derivatives and their metal complexes, particularly medicinal inorganic metal complexes have been considered as new drugs for their antimicrobial activities like anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-tuberculosis, DNA binding, antioxidant, cytotoxic, scavenging and antiviral activities. In this review, we have focused on the various synthesized metal complexes of isoniazid and its hydrazones and have compared their biological activities which are more or less strong against microorganisms. It is found that INH has moderate to strong antimicrobial activity.</p> Ashrafuzzaman . Ekhlass Uddin Raisul Islam Nur Amin Bitu Saddam Hossain Nasir Uddin Md. Mahasin Ali Ali Asraf Faruk Hossen Masuqul Haque Kudrat- E-Zahan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-28 2020-05-28 17 31 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v6i330118