In vitro Antiplasmodial and Haemolytic Activities of Trema orientalis, Cnestis ferruginea and Dialium dinklagei Used to Treat Malaria in Côte d’Ivoire

Karim Tuo *

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Institut Pasteur of Côte d'Ivoire, 01 BP 490 Abidjan 01, Côte d'Ivoire.

Sylvain Beourou

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Institut Pasteur of Côte d'Ivoire, 01 BP 490 Abidjan 01, Côte d'Ivoire.

Kigbafori Dieudonné Silue

Ex-vivo Chemosensitiivity Platform, Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire, 01 BP 1303 Abidjan 01, Côte d'Ivoire and Laboratory of Biology and Health, Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, 01 BP V 34 Abidjan 01, Côte d'Ivoire.

Allico Joseph Djaman

Laboratory of Pharmacodynamics-Biochemistry, Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, 01 BP V 34 Abidjan 01, Côte d'Ivoire and Department of Clinical and Basic Biochemistry, Institut Pasteur of Côte d'Ivoire, 01 BP 490 Abidjan 01, Côte d'Ivoire.

Adama Coulibaly

Department of Clinical and Basic Biochemistry, Institut Pasteur of Côte d'Ivoire, 01 BP 490 Abidjan 01, Côte d'Ivoire.

André Offianan Toure

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Institut Pasteur of Côte d'Ivoire, 01 BP 490 Abidjan 01, Côte d'Ivoire.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Malaria constitutes one of the biggest health problems in tropical Africa due to the resistance of human malaria parasites to anti-malarial compounds. Research focused on plants used in traditional medicine to treat malaria is still a viable alternative for the creation of novel anti-malarial drugs. This study evaluated extracts from three medicinal plants, Trema orientalis, Cnestis ferruginea and Dialium dinklagei, used in traditional medicine in Côte d’Ivoire, for in vitro antiplasmodial activities. SYBR GREEN fluorescence method was used to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory activity of the extracts, chloroquine, artesunate and quinine against Plasmodium falciparum field isolates and two laboratory strains of Plasmodium falciparum: the chloroquine sensitive 3D7 and the chloroquine resistant Dd2. In comparison to plant extracts, chloroquine, quinine, and artesunate were chosen as reference antimalarials. In addition, the haemolytic activity of extracts showing good antiplasmodial activity was evaluated. The IC50 and the corresponding correlation coefficients were determined graphically, using In vitro Analysis and Reporting Tool (IVART) software of WWARN (Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network). Results showed that no plant was active with the hexanolic extract. Trema orientalis had moderate activity with the methanolic extract with activities ranging from 14.46µg/mL to 28.32µg/mL. Cnestis ferruginea was active with the decoction extracts with activities ranging from 11.78µg/mL to 13.94µg/mL. Dialium dinklagei was active with both methanolic and aqueous extracts ranging from 12.80µg/mL to 21.67µg/mL. There was less than 1% hemolysis at the concentration of 200 µg/mL of plant extracts. These results validate the reported traditional use of Trema orientalis, Cnestis ferruginea and Dialium dinklagei for malaria treatment in Côte d’Ivoire.

Keywords: Antiplasmodial, haemolytic, In vitro, malaria, Plasmodium falciparum

How to Cite

Tuo, Karim, Sylvain Beourou, Kigbafori Dieudonné Silue, Allico Joseph Djaman, Adama Coulibaly, and André Offianan Toure. 2022. “In Vitro Antiplasmodial and Haemolytic Activities of Trema Orientalis, Cnestis Ferruginea and Dialium Dinklagei Used to Treat Malaria in Côte d’Ivoire”. Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry 11 (1):11-21.


Download data is not yet available.


WHO. World malaria report 2020. Geneva, Switzerland; 2020.

Pradines B, Dormoi J, Briolant S, Bogreau H, Rogier C. La résistance aux antipaludiques. Rev Francoph Lab. 2010; 2010(422):51-62.

DOI: 10.1016/S1773-035X(10)70510-4

Tola M, Ajibola O, Idowu ET, Omidiji O, Awolola ST, Amambua-Ngwa A. Molecular detection of drug resistant polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Southwest, Nigeria. B.M.C. Res Notes. 2020;13(1):497.

DOI: 10.1186/s13104-020-05334-5, PMID 33109270.

Jambou R, Legrand E, Niang M, Khim N, Lim P, Volney B, et al. Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates to In-vitro artemether and point mutations of the SERCA-type PfATPase6. Lancet. 2005; 366(9501):1960-3.

DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67787-2, PMID 16325698.

Ariey F, Witkowski B, Amaratunga C, Beghain J, Langlois AC, Khim N, et al. A molecular marker of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Nature. 2014;505(7481):50-5.

DOI: 10.1038/nature12876, PMID 24352242.

Kaur K, Jain M, Kaur T, Jain R. Antimalarials from nature. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17(9):3229-56.

DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2009.02.050, PMID 19299148.

Adebayo JO, Krettli AU. Potential antimalarials from Nigerian plants: A review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011; 133(2):289-302.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.11.024, PMID 21093570.

Tane P, Tatsimo SD, Ayimele GA, Connolly JD. Bioactive metabolites from Aframomum species. 11th NAPRECA Symposium Book of Proceedings, Antananarivo, Madagascar. 2005;214-23.

Soh PN, Benoit-Vical F. Are West African plants a source of future antimalarial drugs? J Ethnopharmacol. 2007; 114(2):130-40.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2007.08.012, PMID 17884314.

Bouquet A, Debray M. Plantes médicinales de la Côte d’Ivoire. O.R.S.T.O.M., Office de la recherche scientifique et technique outre-mer. Paris; 1974.

Olugbade TA, Oluwadiya JO, Yisak WA. Chemical constituents of Cnestis ferruginea DC. I. Petroleum ether fraction. J Ethnopharmacol. 1982;6(3):365-70.

DOI: 10.1016/0378-8741(82)90058-7, PMID 7154704.

Aschfalk A, Steingass H, Müller W, Drochner W. Acceptance and digestibility of some selected browse feeds with varying tannin content as supplements in sheep nutrition in West Africa. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2000;47(9):513-24.

DOI: 10.1046/j.1439-0442.2000.00313.x, PMID 11246480.

Gill LS. Ethnomedicinal uses of plants in Nigeria. (UNIBEN Pre.). Benin: Scientific Research Publishing; 1992.

Jongkind CCH, Lemmens RHMJ. THE Connaraceae a taxonomic study with special emphasis on Africa. Agricultural University; 1989.

Kerharo J, Adam JG. La Pharmacopée sénégalaise traditionnelle. Plantes médicinales et toxiques. J Agric Trad Bot Appl. 1974;21(1):76-7.

Ishola IO, Akindele AJ, Adeyemi OO. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Cnestis ferruginea Vahl ex DC (Connaraceae) methanolic root extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;135(1):55-62.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.02.024, PMID 21354291.

Ishola IO, Chaturvedi JP, Rai S, Rajasekar N, Adeyemi OO, Shukla R, et al. Evaluation of amentoflavone isolated from Cnestis ferruginea Vahl ex DC (Connaraceae) on production of inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated rat astrocytoma cell line (C6) and THP-1 cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;146(2):440-8.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.12.015, PMID 23376104.

Ishola IO, Chatterjee M, Tota S, Tadigopulla N, Adeyemi OO, Palit G, et al. Antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of amentoflavone isolated from Cnestis ferruginea in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012;103(2):322-31.

DOI: 10.1016/j.pbb.2012.08.017, PMID 22944105.

Bekro Y-A, Mamyrbekova J, Boua B, Tra Bi F, Ehile E. Étude ethnobotanique et screening phytochimique de Caesalpinia benthamiana (Baill.) Herend. et Zarucchi (Caesalpiniaceae). Sci & Nature. 2007; 4(2):217-25.

DOI: 10.4314/scinat.v4i2.42146

Dimo T, Ngueguim FT, Kamtchouing P, Dongo E, Tan PV. Glucose lowering efficacy of the aqueous stem bark extract of Trema orientalis (Linn) Blume in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats. Pharmazie. 2006;61(3):233-6. PMID 16599266.

Dijoux-Franca MG, Noungoué Tchamo DN, Cherel B, Cussac M, Tsamo E, Mariotte AM. New dihydrophenanthrene and Phenyldihydroisocoumarin constituents of Trema orientalis. J Nat Prod. 2001;64(6):832-5.

DOI: 10.1021/np000275s, PMID 11421759.

Betti JL. Etude ethnobotanique des plantes médicinales de la réserve de faune du Dja: les plantes indiquées en thérapie traditionnelle comme anthelminthiques. Nat Faune. 1998;14:32-48.

Zirihi GN, Kra AKM, Guede-Guina F. Évaluation de l’activité antifongique Microglossa Pirifolia (Larmarck) O. Kuntze (Asteraceae) ”PYMI” sur la croissance in vitro de Candida albicans. Rev Med Pharm Afr. 2003;17:11-8.

Trager W, Jensen JB. Human malaria parasites in continuous culture. Science. 1976;193(4254):673-5.

DOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.781840, PMID 781840.

Johnson JD, Dennull RA, Gerena L, Lopez-Sanchez M, Roncal NE, Waters NC. Assessment and continued validation of the malaria SYBR Green I-based fluorescence assay for use in malaria drug screening. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51(6):1926-33.

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01607-06, PMID 17371812.

Akala HM, Eyase FL, Cheruiyot AC, Omondi AA, Ogutu BR, Waters NC, et al. Antimalarial drug sensitivity profile of western Kenya Plasmodium falciparum field isolates determined by a SYBR Green I in vitro assay and molecular analysis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;85(1):34-41.

DOI: 10.4269/AJTMH.2011.10-0674, PMID 21734121.

Le Nagard H, Vincent C, Mentré F, Le Bras J. Online analysis of in vitro resistance to antimalarial drugs through nonlinear regression. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2011;104(1):10-8.

DOI: 10.1016/J.CMPB.2010.08.003, PMID 20828858.

Smilkstein M, Sriwilaijaroen N, Kelly JX, Wilairat P, Riscoe M. Simple and inexpensive fluorescence-based technique for high-throughput antimalarial drug screening. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48(5):1803-6.

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.48.5.1803-1806.2004, PMID 15105138.

Basco LK. Field application of in vitro assays for the sensitivity of human malaria parasites to antimalarial drugs. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2007.

Bero J, Quetin-Leclercq J. Natural products published in 2009 from plants traditionally used to treat malaria. Planta Med. 2011;77(6):631-40.

DOI: 10.1055/S-0030-1250405, PMID 20960389.

Jansen O, Tits M, Angenot L, Nicolas JP, de Mol P, Nikiema JB, et al. Anti-plasmodial activity of Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae) and identification of urospermal A-15-O-acetate as the main active compound. Malar J. 2012; 11:289.

DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-289, PMID 22909422.

Eze UA, Bello S, Etuk E, Ameh GI, Ugwah OM, Ugwah-Oguejiofor CJ. Phytochemical and preliminary toxicological studies of the aqueous leave extract of Leucas martinicensis in Wistar rats. undefined; 2013.

Kamanzi Atindehou KK, Schmid C, Brun R, Koné MW, Traore D. Antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants from Côte d’Ivoire. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;90(2-3):221-7.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2003.09.032, PMID 15013184.

Kouakou K, Panda SK, Yang MR, Lu JG, Jiang ZH, Van Puyvelde L, et al. Isolation of antimicrobial compounds from Cnestis ferrugineavahl ex. DC (Connaraceae) leaves through bioassay-guided fractionation. Front Microbiol. 2019; 10(APR):705.

DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00705, PMID 31031719.

Nunes Alves Paim LF, Patrocínio Toledo CA, Lima da Paz JR, Picolotto A, Ballardin G, Souza VC et al. Connaraceae: An updated overview of research and the pharmacological potential of 39 species. J Ethnopharmacol. 2020;261(February):112980.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.112980, PMID 32422354.

Oyebola OE, Morenikeji OA, Ademola IO. In-vivo antimalarial activity of aqueous leaf and bark extracts of Trema orientalis against Plasmodium berghei in mice. J Parasit Dis. 2017;41(2):398-404.

DOI: 10.1007/s12639-016-0815-0, PMID 28615849.

Oludele O, Moses D, Tolulope I, Victoria A. In vivo antiplasmodial activity of extract and fractions of Trema orientalis in P. berghei-induced malaria in mice. J Coast Life Med. 2016;4(10):784-90.

DOI: 10.12980/jclm.4.2016J6-159

Ayoade GW, Olusi TA, Amoo IA, Eka-ete G.E. Composition of some traditional malaria remedies and their antiplasmodial effects on (Plasmodium berghei). 2014; 4(3):1-8.

Samuel B, Oluyemi WM, Abiodun O. Bioguided investigation of the antimalarial activities of Trema orientalis (L.) Blume leaves. Afr J Biotechnol. 2015;14(43): 2966-71.

DOI: 10.5897/AJB2015.14551

Parvez A, Shaheen SM. A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review on Trema a Potential. Med Plants. 2019;3:103-19.

Akin OB, Gabriel AF, Omoniyi AO, Ezeani SC. Scientific approach on the antimicrobial potentials of bioactive phytochemicals of trema orientalis leaves and stalk. European academic research. 2016;3(12):12972-81.

Akoué GN, Obame LC, Ondo JP, Brama I, Nnang E, Lepengue A, et al. Ethnotherapy study, phytochemical and antiradical activities of Agelaea pentagyna (Lam) Baill and Dialium dinklagei Harms. Medicinal plants from. Int J Adv Res. 2013;1(8): 246-55.

Bero J, Frédérich M, Quetin- Leclercq J. Antimalarial compounds isolated from plants used in traditional medicine. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009; 61(11): 1401-33.

DOI: 10.1211/jpp/61.11.0001, PMID 19903367.