Vitamin D, Calcium and Phosphorus Status Involvement during COVID-19 Infection

Abdalla Eltoum Ali *

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Alzaeim Alazhari, Sudan and Program of Medicine & Medical Laboratory Science, Alofoug College of Science & Technology, Khartoum, Sudan.

Mohamed Fathy Seyyed Ahmed

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Alzaeim Alazhari, Sudan.

Somia Mohammed Suliman

Program of Medicine & Medical Laboratory Science, Alofoug College of Science & Technology, Khartoum, Sudan.

Ibrahim Ahamed Ali Karti

Program of Medicine & Medical Laboratory Science, Alofoug College of Science & Technology, Khartoum, Sudan.

Haidar Eltayeb Saleh

Clinical Research Laboratory Services, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center (SCCC), Miami University, Miami Fl33136, USA.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Background: COVID-19 is associated with a weak immune system in the human body. Vitamin D plays a role in the body’s immune system and is known to enhance the function of immune cells. In this case, vitamin D inhibits some of the inflammation that can make COVID-19 more severe. The is study aims to determine the serum levels of vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus in COVID-19 patients.

Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted during the period from January 2021 to July 2021. 50 COVID-19 patients as a case study and 50 healthy individuals as a control group were included in this study. Blood samples were collected from the study group and measured for vitamin D using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Calcium and phosphate were measured by the Cobas 6000 fully automated analyzer (Roche, Germany).

Results:  The study result showed that in COVID-19 patients, vitamin D (27 ± 5 ng/mL), p-value = 0.000, and calcium (10.2 ± 4 mg/dL), p-value = 0.000, in comparison with control. There was a correlation between vitamin D (r = -.771; p =.000) and calcium (r = -.752; p =.000) and the severity of disease.

Conclusions: According to our research, vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of developing COVID-19 and the risk of developing severe illnesses.

Keywords: COVID -19, vitamin D, calcium, phosphate


How to Cite

Ali, A. E., Ahmed, M. F. S., Suliman, S. M., Karti, I. A. A., & Saleh, H. E. (2022). Vitamin D, Calcium and Phosphorus Status Involvement during COVID-19 Infection. Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, 11(2), 29–38. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2022/v11i2214

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Cascella M, Rajnik M, Aleem A, Dulebohn S, Di Napoli R. Features, evaluation, and treatment of coronavirus (COVID-19); 2021.

[cited 2021 Oct]

Available:https://www.statpearls.com/ArticleLibrary/viewarticle/52171

Office of Dietary supplements - vitamin D. ods. od.nih.gov; October 9, 2020.

Retrieved October 31, 2020.

Norman AW. From vitamin D to hormone D: Fundamentals of the vitamin D endocrine system essential for good health. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. August 2008;88(2):491 S - 499 S.

Bikle DD. Vitamin D metabolism, mechanism of action, and clinical applications. Chemistry and Biology. March 2014;21(3):319 - 29.

Lippi G, South AM, Henry BM. Electrolyte imbalances in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Ann Clin Biochem. 2020;57(3):262–265.

White JH. Vitamin D metabolism and signaling in the immune system. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2012;13:21–29.

Gombart AF, Borregaard N, Koeffler HP. The human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene is a direct target of the vitamin D receptor and is strongly up-regulated in myeloid cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. FASEB J. 2005; 19:1067–1077.

Adams JS, Ren S, Liu PT, Chun RF, Lagishetty V, Gombart AF, et al. Vitamin D-directed rheostatic regulation of monocyte antibacterial responses. J Immunol. 2009; 182:4289–4295.

Chen G, Wu D, Guo W, Cao Y, Huang D, Wang H, et al. Clinical and immunological features of severe and moderate coronavirus disease 2019. J Clin Invest. 2020;130:2620–2629.

Cantorna MT, Snyder L, Lin YD, Yang L. Vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2D regulation of T cells. Nutrients. 2015;7:3011–3021.

Adrian R Martineau, et al. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. BMJ 2017 Feb 15;356:i6583.

Kimberly YZ Forrest, Wendy L Stuhldreher. Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults Nutr Res2011 Jan;31(1):48-54.

David O. Meltzer, ThomaJ. Best, Hui Zhang, et al. Association of Vitamin D status and other clinical characteristics with COVID-19 Test Results. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(9):e2019722.

Franchini M, Marano G, Cruciani M, Mengoli C, Pati I, Masiello F, et al. COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. Diagnosis (Berl). 2020;7:357–363.

Hu B, Huang S, Yin L. The cytokine storm and COVID-19. J Med Virol. 2021;93:250–256.

Wang Y, Zhou Y, Yang Z, Xia D, Hu Y, Geng S. Clinical characteristics of patients with severe pneumonia caused by the SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China. Respiration. 2020;99:649–657.

Alhassan Mohammed H, Mirshafiey A, Vahedi H, Hemmasi G, Moussavi Nasl Khameneh A, Parastouei K, et al. Immunoregulation of inflammatory and inhibitory cytokines by vitamin D3 in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Scand J Immunol. 2017;85:386–394.

Daneshkhah A, Agrawal V, Eshein A, Subramanian H, Roy HK, Backman V. Evidence for a possible association of vitamin D status with cytokine storm and unregulated inflammation in COVID-19 patients. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2020;32: 2141–2158.

Mohammad S, Mishra A, Ashraf MZ. The emerging role of vitamin D and its associated molecules in pathways related to the pathogenesis of thrombosis. Biomolecules. 2019;9:649.

llie PC, stefanescu S, Smith L, The role of vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and mortality. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2020;32(7):1195 - 1198.

Raharusuna P, Priambada S, Budiarti C, Agung E, Budi C, patterns of mortality and vitamin D: an Indonesian study. Preprint; 2020.

Tian Y, Rong L. letter. COVID-19, and vitamin D. Authors reply. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2020;s1(10): 995 - 996.

Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72,314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. J Am Med Asso. 2020c;323(13):1239-42.

Chan JFW, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KK, Chu H, Yang J. a familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet. 2020 140-6736(20):30154-59.

Phan LT, Nguyen TV, Luong QC, Nguyen TV, Nguyen HT, Le HQ, et al. Importation and Human-to-Human Transmission of a Novel Coronavirus in Vietnam. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(9):87274.

HCT & UNCUT. Sudan- Coronavirus- COVID-19 Country preparedness and response plan [Internet]; 2020.

Team TNCPERE. The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China. Chin J Epidemiol. 2020;41.

Abdolahi Shahvali Elham, Khalighi Azam et al. Serum vitamin D, calcium, and zinc levels in patients with COVID-19, Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2021 Jun;43:276-282.

Sun JK, Zhang WH, Zou L, Liu Y, Li JJ, Kan XH. Serum calcium as a biomarker of clinical severity and prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019: a retrospective cross-section study. 2020 JUN 30;12 (12):11287 - 11295.

Chauss D, Freiwald T, McGregor R, et al. Autocrine vitamin D signaling switches off pro-inflammatory programs of TH1 cells. Nat Immunol. 2022;23:62-74.

Ismailova A, White JH. Vitamin D, infections, and immunity. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2022;23:265-77.

Berry DJ, Hesketh K, Power C, Hyppönen E. Vitamin D status has a linear association with seasonal infections and lung function in British adults. Br J Nutr. 2011;106:1433-40.

Jolliffe DA, Camargo CA Jr, Sluyter JD, et al. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of aggregate data from randomized controlled trials. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2021;9:276-92.

Martineau AR, Jolliffe DA, Hooper RL, et al. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. BMJ. 2017; 356:i6583.

DOI:10.1136/bmj.i6583 pmid:28202713

Godbole NM, Sinha RA, Tiwari S, Pawar SD, Dhole. Analysis of influenza virus-induced perturbation in autophagic flux and its modulation during Vitamin D3 mediated anti-apoptotic signaling. Virus Res. 2020; 282:197936.

Greiller CL, Suri R, Jolliffe DA, et al. Vitamin D attenuates rhinovirus-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) in respiratory epithelial cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019;187:152-9.

Grant WB, Lahore H, McDonnell SL, Baggerly CA, French CB, Aliano JL. Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths. Nutrients. 2020;12(4):988.

Hosseininejad N., Kalbasi Z, Afshar J. vitamin D, and childhood pneumonia. Razi J Med Sci. 2016;22(140):109 - 116.

Chiodini I, Gatti D, Soranna D, et al. Vitamin D Status and SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID-19 Clinical Outcomes. Front Public Health. 2021; 9:736665.

Bergman P. The link between vitamin D and COVID-19: distinguishing facts from fiction. J Intern Med. 2021;289:131-3.

Subramanian S, Griffin G, Hewison M, et al. Vitamin D, and COVID-19-Revisited. J Intern Med; 2022.

Jolliffe DA, Holt H, Greening M, et al. Effect of a test-and-treat approach to vitamin D supplementation on risk of acute respiratory infections and covid-19: phase 3 randomized controlled trial. BMJ. 2022; 378:e071230.

Alipio M. Vitamin D supplementation could improve clinical outcomes of patients infected with the coronavirus - 2019 (COVID 2019). SSRN Electron J; 2020.

YongkangDong, Li Dong. Novel coronavirus epidemic prevention and control research project of Shanxi Province, Grant/Award Numbers. The Research Project of Shanxi Health Commission. 202003D31002/GZ, 202003D31005/GZ.

Bove-Fenderson E, Mannstadt M. Hypocalcemic disorders. Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2018;32(5):639–656.

Pal R, Ram S, Zohmangaihi D Biswas I, Suri V, Yaddanapudi LN, Malhotra P, Soni SL, Puri GD, Bhalla A, Bhadada SK. High prevalence of hypocalcemia in non-severe COVID-19 patients: A retrospective case-control study. Front. Med. 2021;7:590805.

Li T, Zhang Y, Gong C, et al. Prevalence of malnutrition and analysis of related factors in elderly patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2020;74(6):871–875.

Di Filippo L, De Lorenzo R, D'Amico M, et al. COVID-19 is associated with clinically significant weight loss and risk of malnutrition, independent of hospitalization: a posthoc analysis of a prospective cohort study. Clin Nutr. 2021; 40(4):2420–2426.

Yu Y, Ye J, Chen M, et al. Malnutrition prolongs the hospitalization of patients with COVID-19 infection: a clinical epidemiological analysis. J Nutr Health Aging. 2021;25(3):369–373.

Liu A, Cong J, Wang Q, et al. Risk of malnutrition is common in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China: a Cross-sectional Study. J Nutr. 2021;151(6):1591–1596.

Wei C, Liu Y, Li Y, Zhang Y, Zhong M, Meng X. Evaluation of the nutritional status in patients with COVID-19. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2020;67(2):116–121.

Zhou J, Ma Y, Liu Y, et al. A correlation analysis between the nutritional status and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. J Nutr Health Aging. 2021;25(1):84–93.

DOI:10.1007/s12603-020-1457-6

William F. Marshall, Can be taking a vitamin D supplement to prevent infection with the virus that causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)? Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). 2021;10.