Phytonutrients and Anti-Nutrient Composition of Aqueous Extract of Fermented Seeds of Prosopis africana

Ebere Immaculata Akpata *

Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Onuabuchi Nnenna Ani

Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Okwesili Fred C. Nwodo

Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Prosopis africana is a perennial leguminous plant in the genus Prosopis. The seeds are used as food condiment. This study was aimed at evaluating the phytochemical, proximate, vitamin and anti-nutrient compositions of aqueous extract of fermented seeds of Prosopis africana. The analyses were done using standard biochemical methods. Assessment of the bioactive constituents was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The result of the phytochemical analysis revealed quantifiable levels of Steroid, phenols, triterpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids and saponin. The result of the proximate analysis showed that fermented seeds of Prosopis africana contains moisture (50.51 ± 0.01%), ash (3.78± 0.004%), crude fat (4.45 ± 0.03%), crude fibre (2.49 ± 0.01%), crude protein (25.27 ± 0.07%) and Carbohydrates (13.56 ± 0.003%). The energy value was 195.37 Kcal/100g. Vitamins A (6.38 ± 0.001), vitamin C (36.77 ± 0.004), Vitamin D (0.43 ± 0.003) and vitamin E (0.84 ± 0.001) were present in the extract. The anti-nutrients detected were tannin (12.27 ± 0.06 mgGAE/kg), Phytate (3.68 ± 1.18 mg/kg), oxalate (44.36 ± 14.16 mg/kg), trypsin (4.72 ± 0.46 mg/kg) and cyanide (0.47 ± 0.14 ppm). A total of seventeen (17) bioactive constituents were found using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer which include 1,2-Benzisothiazol-3-amine, 2,5-Dihydroxyacetophenone, Cyclopentasiloxane, Propionic acid, Cyclohexasiloxane, 1,2-Bis(trimethylsilyl) benzene, Cycloheptasiloxane, 2-bromobutyloxychalcone, Cyclooctasiloxane, Fumaric acid, 5-Methyl-2-phenylindolizine, 4-(acridin-9—ylamino)-phenyl)-acetamide, 1,2-Bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene), 5-Methyl-2-phenylindolizine, 1,2-Benzisothiazole-3-propanoic acid, 1,4-Bis(trimethylsilyl) benzene and Cyclotrisiloxane. This study showed that aqueous extract of Prosopis africana seed contains various compounds which are found useful for nutritional and medicinal purposes.

Keywords: Prosopis africana, phytochemical, proximate, vitamin, anti-nutrient, fermented

How to Cite

Akpata , E. I., Ani , O. N., & Nwodo , O. F. C. (2023). Phytonutrients and Anti-Nutrient Composition of Aqueous Extract of Fermented Seeds of Prosopis africana. Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, 13(3), 12–27.


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