Effect of Siphonochilus aethiopicus Methanolic Extract on Oxidative Stress Markers, Biochemical and Hematological Parameters in Experimentally Induced Arthritis Model in Mice

Elizé Dadaya *

Department of Life Sciences, Higher Teachers Training College, University of Bertoua, P.O Box 652, Bertoua, Cameroon.

Jeweldai Vedekoi

Department of Biotechnology and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Science, University of Ebolowa, P.O. Box 118, Ebolowa, Cameroon.

Tchoubou Zacharie

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Maroua, P.O. Box 814 Maroua, Cameroon.

Hervé Ngatanko Abaissou

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Maroua, P.O. Box 814 Maroua, Cameroon.

Ndjonka Dieudonné

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Garoua, P.O. Box 346, Garoua, Cameroon.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Background: Siphonochilus aethiopicus belongs to the Zingiberaceae family. In Chinese medicine, Zingiberaceae are acknowledged for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which contribute to immune system reinforcement. They are known to promote digestion, alleviate nausea, motion sickness and are involved incombating flu and cold. The current study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the methanolic extract of Siphonochilus aethiopicus (MESA).

Methodology: The in vivo study examined the anti-inflammatory impact of the extract (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) using a formaldehyde-induced inflammation mouse model. The anti-arthritic effect of the MESA was determined by measuring paw diameter, body weight, biochemical parameters (C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor) including oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and nitric oxide), and hematological parameters. Additionally, a histopathological examination was conducted to evaluate the outcome of treatment on tissue integrity.

Results: Results obtained show that the MESA significantly decreased paw inflammation (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) and enhanced hematological and biochemical parameters. Additionally, MESA significantly ameliorated oxidative stress parameters (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001).

Conclusion: This finding suggests that Siphonochilus aethiopicus possesses strong antioxidant and anti-arthritic activity, supporting its traditional application as a remedy for rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: Antioxidant activities, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, Siphonochilus aethiopicus

How to Cite

Dadaya , Elizé, Jeweldai Vedekoi, Tchoubou Zacharie, Hervé Ngatanko Abaissou, and Ndjonka Dieudonné. 2024. “Effect of Siphonochilus Aethiopicus Methanolic Extract on Oxidative Stress Markers, Biochemical and Hematological Parameters in Experimentally Induced Arthritis Model in Mice”. Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry 14 (4):34-48. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2024/v14i4292.


Download data is not yet available.


Kernouf N. Effet des extraits de Capparis spinosa sur la production des médiateurs inflammatoires des neutrophiles et des monocytes. Thèse de doctorat. Université Université Ferhat Abbas Sétif 1. 2019;3-23.

Chen J, Norling LV, Cooper D. Cardiac dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis: The role of inflammation. Cells. 2021;10:881.

Saleem A, Saleem M, Akhtar MF, Shahzad M, and Jahan S. Moringa rivae leaf extracts attenuate complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis in wistar rats via modulation of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers. Inflammopharmacology. 2020;28:139-151.

Gutiérrez-Rebolledo GA, Gardu˜no-Siciliano L, Chávez-Rueda AK, Siordia-Reyes AG, Zamilpa A, Jiménez-Arellanes MA. In vivo anti-arthritic and antioxidant effects from the standardized ethanolic extract of Moussonia deppeana. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy. 2018;28:198-206.

Zhang C, Zhang W, Shi R, Tang B, Xie S. Coix lachryma‑jobi extract ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in a complete Freund's adjuvant‑induced rheumatoid arthritis model. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2019;57:792‑798.‎

Sharifi-Rad M, Anil Kumar NV, Zucca P, Varoni EM, Dini L, Panzarini E, et al. Lifestyle, oxidative stress, and antioxidants: Back and forth in the pathophysiology of chronic diseases. Front Physiol. 2020;11:694.

Delattre J, Beaudeux JL, Bonnefont-Rousselot D. Radicaux libres et stress oxydant, aspects biologiques et pathologiques. Première édition. Ed. Tec et Doc, Lavoisier, Paris. 2005;547.

Phull AR, Nasir B, Haq I, Kim SJ. Oxidative stress, consequences and ROS mediated cellular signaling in rheumatoid arthritis. Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2018;281: 121-136.

Covelli M, Sarzi-Puttini P, Atzeni F. Safety of rituximab in rheumatoid arthritis. Reumatismo. 2010;62:101-106.

Ventura-Ríos L, Ba˜nuelos-Ramírez D, Hernández-Quiroz, MC, Robles-San RM, Irazoque-Palazuelos F, Goycochea-Robles MV. Terapia biológica:sobrevida y seguridad en padecimientos reumáticos Resultados del Registro Nacional Biobadamex. Reum Clin. 2012;8:189-194.

Atzeni F, Turiel M, Caporali R, Cavagna L, Tomasoni L, Sitia S and Sarzi-Puttini P. The effect of pharmacological therapy on the cardiovascular system of patients with systemic rheumatic diseases. Autoimmunity Reviews. 2010;9:835-839.

Douzi W, Guillot X, Bon D, Seguin F, Boildieu N, Wendling D, Tordi N, Dupuy O. H-NMR-based analysis for exploring knee synovial fluid metabolite changes after local cryotherapy in knee arthritis patients. Metabolites. 2020;10:460.

Stafford GI, Jäger AK, van Staden J. Effect of storage on the chemical composition and biological activity of several popular South African medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;97(1):107-15.

Coopoosamy RM, Naidoo KK, Buwa L, Mayekiso B. Screening of Siphonochilus aetiopicus (Schweinf.) B.L. Burtt for antibacterial and antifungal properties. J Med Plant Res. 2010; 4(12):1228-31

Lategan CA, Campbell WE, Seaman T, Smith PJ. The bioactivity of novel furanoterpenoids isolated from Siphonochilus aethiopicus. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;121(1):92-7.

Van Wyk BE. The potential of South African plants in the development of new medicinal products. S Afr J Bot. 2011; 77(4):812-29.

Holzapfel CW, Marais W, Wessels PL, Van Wyk BE. Furanoterpenoids from Siphonochilus aethiopicus. Phytochemistry. 2002;59(4):405-7.

Mariod AA, Mohamad-Ibrahim R, Ismail M, Ismail N. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of phenolic rich fractions obtained from black cumin (Nigella sativa) seedcake. Food Chem. 2009;116:306-312.

Rahmani S, Belboukhari N, Cheriti A. Evaluation de l'activité anti-inflammatoire d’extraits aqueux de feuilles Limonia strumfeei (Plumbaginacea). Algerian Journal of Arid Environment “Ajae”. 2016; 6(1):80-86.

Pepys MB and Baltz ML. Adv. Immunol. 1983;34:141.

Young, D.S. Effects of drugs on clinical laboratory tests. 4th Edition. AACC Press; 1995.

Misra H P, Fridovich I. The role of superoxide anion in the autoxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for superoxide dismutase. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1972;14:3170–3175.

Sinha AK. Colorimetric assay of catalase. Analytical Biochemistry. 1972;47:389–394.

Wilbur KM, Bernheim F, Shapiro OW. Determination of lipid peroxidation. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 1949;24:305–310.

Fermor B, Haribabu B, Brice WJ, Pisetsky DS, Guilak F. Mechanical stress and nitric oxide influence leukotriene production in cartilage. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2001;285:806-810.

Williams LAD, O’Connar A, Latore L, Dennis O, Ringer S, Whittaker JA. The in vitro anti-denaturation effects induced by natural products and non-steroidal compounds in heat treated (immunogenic) bovine serum albumin is proposed as a screening assay for the detection of anti-inflammatory compounds, without the use of animals. West Indian Medical Journal. 2008;57(4):327-351.

Jalalpure SS, Mandavkar YD, Khalure PR, Shinde GS, Shelar PA, Shah AS. Antiarthritic activity of various extracts of Mesua ferrea Linn. seed. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011;138:700-704.

Gautam M, Ramanathan M. Saponins of tribulus terrestris attenuated neuropathic pain induced with vincristine through central and peripheral mechanism. Inflammopharmacology. 2018;25:467- 498.

Rossato MF, Hofmeister C, Tonello R, de Oliveira Ferreira AP, Ferreira J. Anti-infammatory efects of vitamin E on adjuvantinduced arthritis in rats. Infammation 2015;38(2):606–615.

Bose M, Chakraborty M, Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharjee P, Mandal S, Kar M, Mishra R. Suppression of NF-κ B p65 nuclear translocation and tumor necrosis factor-α by Pongamia pinnata seed extract in adjuvant-induced arthritis. J Immunotoxicol. 2014;11(3):222–230.

Rajendran R, Krishnakumar E. Anti-arthritic activity of Premna serratifolia Linn., wood against adjuvant induced arthritis. Avicenna J Med Biotechnol. 2010;2(2):101.

Naz R., Ahmed Z, Shahzad M, Shabbir A, and Kamal F. Amelioration of rheumatoid arthritis by anacardium occidentale via inhibition of collagenase and lysosomal enzymes. Evid. Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2020;2020:8869484.

Marius M, Gonzal TE, Gilbert A, William NY, Desire BTF, Flore DNS, Sorelle MN, Tresor WKM. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic properties of aqueous and methanolic stem bark extracts from Nauclea pobeguinii (Rubiacee) in rats. J. Complementary Integr. Med. 2018;15: 20170140.

Atsang AG, Dzeufiet DPD, Foyet HS, Dimo T, Kamtchouing P. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of the aqueous extract of Dichrostachys glomerata (Forssk.) hutch fruits. European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2014;4:8.

Alamgeer NSG, Uttra AM, Qaiser MN, Ahsan H. Appraisal of anti-arthritic and nephroprotective potential of Cuscuta refexa. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2017;55: 792-798.

Kumar P, Banik S. Pharmacotherapy options in rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Medicine Insights. Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2013;6:35-43.

Middleton E, Kandaswami C, Theoharides TC. The effects of plant flavonoids on mammalian cells: implications for inflammation, heart disease, and cancer. Pharmacological Reviews. 2000;52: 673-75.

Gasparyan AY, Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou A, Mikhailidis DP, Douglas KM, Kitas GD. Platelet function in rheumatoid arthritis: Arthritic and cardiovascular implications. Rheumatol Int. 2011;31(2):153–164.

Maryam F, Uzma S, Muhammad Q, Maria M and Muhammad AS. Sarcococca saligna extract attenuates formaldehyde induced arthritis in Wistar rats via modulation of pro infammatory and infammatory biomarkers. Infammopharmacology. 2022;30:579–597.

Klinger MH. Platelets and inflammation. Anatomy and Embryology. 1997;196:1-11.

Trivigno SMG; Guidetti GF, Barbieri SS, Zarà M. Blood platelets in infection: The multiple roles of the platelet signalling machinery. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023;2:7462.

Esmon. The interaction between inflammation and coagulation. British Journal of Haematologyl. 2005;131:417-430.

Khadem MAH. Anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis in Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic rats. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2016;9(6):2319- 2372.

Aloke C, Ibiam CU, Orji OU, Ugwuja EI, Ezeani N. Anti-arthritic potentials of ethanol and aqueous extracts of stem bark of Cleistopholis patens on complete Freund's adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis in rats. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine. 2019;12(1):28-34.

Mbiantcha M, Almas J, Atsamo AD, Ateufack G, Shabana SU, Tatsinkou DFB. Anti infammatory and anti arthritic effects of methanol extract of the stem bark of Boswellia dalzielii Hutch (Burseraceae) in rats. Food & Function. 2021;12:8227-8247.

Dadaya E, Koubala BB, Abaissou HN, Zingue S, Ndjonka D. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the methanolic extract of Siphonochilus aethiopicus rhizomes. J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2021; 10(4):383-393.

Rudrapal M, Khairnar SJ, Khan J, Dukhyil AB, Ansari MA, Alomary MN, Alshabrmi FM, Palai S, Deb PK and Devi R. Dietary polyphenols and their role in oxidative stress-induced human diseases: insights into protective effects, antioxidant potentials and mechanism(s) of Action. Front. Pharmacol. 2022;13:806470.

Yang X, Li Y, Li Y, Ren X, Zhang X, Hu D. Oxidative stress-mediated atherosclerosis: Mechanisms and therapies. Front. Physiol. 2017;8:600.

Afzal S, Abdul Manap AS, Attiq A, Albokhadaim I, Kandeel M and Alhojaily SM. From imbalance to impairment: the central role of reactive oxygen species in oxidative stress-induced disorders and therapeutic exploration. Front. Pharmacol. 2023;14:1269581.

Sohal RS, Orr WC. The redox stress hypothesis of aging. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2012;52:539–555.

Meera R, Ingrid M, Pascale K, Ellen IC, and Markus M. Metabolism via arginase or nitric oxide synthase: two competing arginine pathways in macrophages Front. Immunol. 2014; 5: 2014

Afsharpour F, Javadi M, Hashemipour S, Koushan Y, and haghighian HK. Propolis supplementation improves glycemic and antioxidant status in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2019;43:283–288.

Ramprasath VR, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P. Evaluation of antioxidant effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut extract on the components of immune system in adjuvant arthritis. Vascular Pharmacology. 2005;42: 179-186.

Sun CL, Wei J, Bi LQ. Rutin attenuates oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine level in adjuvant induced rheumatoid arthritis via inhibition of NF-kappa B. Pharmacology. 2017;100:40- 49.