Biochemical Alterations in the Liver and Kidney of Rats Following Sub-acute Administration of Aqueous Extract of Stem-bark of Anacardium occidentale (Cashew Tree)

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Ademola C. Famurewa
Funmilayo Showunmi
Abiola M. Folawiyo
Michael Epete
Paul I. Okike
Maxwell C. Onuoha

Abstract

Background: The use of herbal medicines for treating ailments is rampant in recent years, and the toxicity implications of various plant preparations are sparingly reported. We investigated the potential effect of daily administration of aqueous extract of stem-bark of cashew tree on the liver and kidney status of rats.

Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: control rats received 1 mL of distilled water, G1 received 100 mg/kg, G2 received 200 mg/kg, while G3 received 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract for 28 consecutive days. The tissue homogenate supernatants were analysed for liver enzymes-alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and kidney function indices- urea and creatinine.

Results: In comparison to control, total protein increased significantly (P< 0.05) at 400 mg/kg extract, whereas albumin level significantly decreased (P<0.05) in rats treated with extract. .Activities of AST, ALP and GGT increased markedly (P< 0.05) at 400 mg/kg, whereas a significant decrease was observed in bilirubin level when compared with the control. Levels of urea and creatinine in kidney tissue were significantly higher in extract-treated rats compared to control.

Conclusion: The findings suggest that the extract dose at 400 mg/kg may cause alterations with toxic implications in the liver and kidney of rats.

Keywords:
Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, liver, kidney, urea, toxicity, herbal medicines.

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How to Cite
Famurewa, A. C., Showunmi, F., Folawiyo, A. M., Epete, M., Okike, P. I., & C. Onuoha, M. (2018). Biochemical Alterations in the Liver and Kidney of Rats Following Sub-acute Administration of Aqueous Extract of Stem-bark of Anacardium occidentale (Cashew Tree). Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, 3(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2018/v3i129815
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Original Research Article