Cancer Initiation and Progression: A Comprehensive Review of Carcinogenic Substances, Anti-Cancer Therapies, and Regulatory Frameworks

Aadil Shafi Bhat

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

Mizna Ahmed

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

Kashif Abbas

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

Mohd Mustafa *

Department of Biochemistry, J.N. Medical College, Faculty of Medicine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

Mudassir Alam

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

Mansour A.S. Salem

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

Sidra Islam

Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, Clinic, Cleveland, USA.

Irfan Qadir Tantry

Department of Biochemistry, School of Biological Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

Yogendra Singh

Department of Biochemistry, J.N. Medical College, Faculty of Medicine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

Muizzah Fatima

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

Nazura Usmani

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

Mohd Faraz

Department of Radiodiagnosis, J.N. Medical College, Faculty of Medicine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

Mohammad Afeef

Department of Biosciences, Natural Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi, India.

Safia Habib *

Department of Biochemistry, J.N. Medical College, Faculty of Medicine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Cancer is a multifaceted disease influenced by genetic mutations and environmental factors, including exposure to carcinogens. This review presents an in-depth analysis of the mechanisms driving cancer initiation, focusing on the roles of carcinogenic chemicals, anticancer therapies, and chemo-preventive agents. The discussion encompasses a broad spectrum of carcinogens: chemical agents like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, physical agents such as ionizing radiation, biological agents like viruses, and certain therapeutic drugs. The multistep nature of carcinogenesis—comprising initiation, promotion, and progression phases—is detailed, with an emphasis on genetic and epigenetic alterations. Methods for testing carcinogenicity, including in vitro and in vivo studies and epidemiological approaches, are highlighted for their significance in identifying potential carcinogens and understanding their mechanisms. To classify and regulate carcinogenic exposures, the review also looks at the risk management plans and regulatory frameworks used by agencies like the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Additionally, emerging trends in cancer treatment, such as precision oncology, immunotherapy, and early detection technologies, are explored, alongside ongoing challenges like health disparities and ethical issues. The review emphasizes the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach, involving collaboration among researchers, clinicians, regulatory bodies, and public health organizations, to translate scientific findings into effective cancer prevention, detection, and treatment strategies.

Keywords: Carcinogens, carcinogenesis, chemical carcinogens, cancer risk, environmental factors, targeted therapies, mutagenesis, regulatory oversight


How to Cite

Bhat , Aadil Shafi, Mizna Ahmed, Kashif Abbas, Mohd Mustafa, Mudassir Alam, Mansour A.S. Salem, Sidra Islam, Irfan Qadir Tantry, Yogendra Singh, Muizzah Fatima, Nazura Usmani, Mohd Faraz, Mohammad Afeef, and Safia Habib. 2024. “Cancer Initiation and Progression: A Comprehensive Review of Carcinogenic Substances, Anti-Cancer Therapies, and Regulatory Frameworks”. Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry 14 (4):111-25. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2024/v14i4300.

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