Proximate Analysis, Extraction, and Characterization of Oil from Terminalia catappa Fruit in Anambra State, Nigeria

Aniekwensi Obinna Patrick *

Department of Applied Biochemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Ogbonna Esther Ozioma

Department of Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Gemadi Kwasi Shine

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Central University/ Atlantic Lifesciences Limited, Ghana.

Akinpelu Toyosi Michael

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria.

Samuel Nzube Nwosu

Department of Chemistry, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Anambra, Nigeria.

Etim Blessing Bassey

Department of Home Economics, University of Uyo, Nigeria.

Nwachukwu Chinemerem Favour

Department of Food Science and Technology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Nigeria.

Awoyungbo Modupeoluwa Damilola

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Nkwocha Stephen Tochi

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, USA.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Context: Terminalia catappa, also known as tropical almond, is a well-known plant recognized for its edible parts, including fruit, bark, leaves, and roots. It is also noted for its medicinal usefulness and numerous pharmacological actions.

Aim: This study aims to analyze the proximate composition of the seeds of tropical almonds, extract and characterize the oil from Terminalia catappa seeds and mesocarp. The goal is to assess the nutritional value of Terminalia catappa and to evaluate the oil's physicochemical properties.

Materials and Methods: Standard methods were used to assess physicochemical parameters such as saponification, acid, peroxide, iodine, and specific gravity. The seed's proximate composition was also analyzed, revealing moisture, ash, crude fiber, fat, protein, and carbohydrate content.

Results: The results indicate that the saponification value (mg KOH/g), acid value (mg KOH/g), iodine value (mg iodine/mg), peroxide value (mg/peroxide/kg), and specific gravity of the oil are 162, 1.68, 89, 1.40, and 0.95 respectively. The proximate composition reveals that the seed contains 23.24% moisture, 5.50% ash, 12.30% crude fiber, 16.51% fat, 21.22% protein, and 39.99% carbohydrate. These findings suggest that tropical almond seed is a good source of protein, carbohydrates, and oil and contains minerals that can contribute valuable amounts of essential nutrients to the human diet. The low acid value suggests that the oil is edible, while the high saponification value indicates its potential in industrial applications such as cosmetics. The low iodine value reveals that it is a non-drying oil unsuitable for the paint industry. Additionally, the low peroxide value of the oil indicates low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration, confirming the presence of antioxidants in the seed oil.

Conclusion: Terminalia catappa seeds exhibit a high level of most chemical components, making them a promising raw material for various industries. Their high protein value and low level of anti-nutrients indicate their potential usefulness in animal and poultry feed supplements. They also serve as beneficial dietary supplements and should be encouraged in diets.

Keywords: Terminalia catappa, tropical almond, seeds


How to Cite

Patrick, Aniekwensi Obinna, Ogbonna Esther Ozioma, Gemadi Kwasi Shine, Akinpelu Toyosi Michael, Samuel Nzube Nwosu, Etim Blessing Bassey, Nwachukwu Chinemerem Favour, Awoyungbo Modupeoluwa Damilola, and Nkwocha Stephen Tochi. 2024. “Proximate Analysis, Extraction, and Characterization of Oil from Terminalia Catappa Fruit in Anambra State, Nigeria”. Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry 14 (4):126-37. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrb/2024/v14i4301.

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