Biochemical and Histopathological Effect of Detarium microcarpum Stem Bark Extract in Wistar Albino Rats

Main Article Content

Abubakar Bilyamini Mu’azu
Yusif Bello Baba
Adamu Idris Matinja


Aim: In this study, the methanol stem bark extract of Detarium microcarpum was evaluated for sub-chronic, biochemical and histopathological studies.

Methodology: Sub-chronic toxicity studies was investigated in rats administered with 35, 70 and 140 mg/kg doses of the extract orally for 28 days using standard laboratory procedures after the acute toxicity was carried out.

Results: The median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract was calculated to be equal to (≥) 5000 mg/kg body weight in rats orally. Serological studies revealed significant (p<0.05) decrease in Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) at all doses tested, while at 140 mg/kg it caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP). At doses of 70 and 140 mg/kg there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in creatinine level. Histopathological studies on the liver showed moderate hepatocellular necrosis at doses of 35 and 70 mg/kg, while at 140 mg/kg there was intense hepatocellular necrosis,  Kupffer cells and lymphocytes hyperplasia. The Kidney showed intense necrosis of tubules and glomerular necrosis with lymphocytes hyperplasia at all doses tested.  The spleen also showed intense lymphocyte hyperplasia at all doses with sinusoidal congestion at the lowest dose of 35 mg/kg. The heart showed slight necrosis of cardiac muscle cells at all doses with blood congestion at 35 and 70mg/kg body weight.

Conclusion: The study indicates that prolong use of the extract in the management of disease conditions may be associated with some adverse effect of some vital organs.

Detarium microcarpum, hepatotoxicity, medicinal plants, sub-chronic, histopathology and stem bark.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mu’azu, A. B., Baba, Y. B., & Matinja, A. I. (2020). Biochemical and Histopathological Effect of Detarium microcarpum Stem Bark Extract in Wistar Albino Rats. Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, 6(4), 1-9.
Original Research Article


Falodun A, Okunrobo L, Uzoamaka N. Phytochemical screening and anti-inflammatory evaluation of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla Linn (Euphorbiaceae). Afr J Biotechnol. 2006;5:529-31.

Rios J, Recio M. Medicinal plants and antimicrobial activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;100:80-4.


Zeni ALB, Parisotto AV, Mattos G, Helena ETdS. Utilização de plantas medicinais como remédio caseiro na Atenção Primária em Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Cien Saude Colet. 2017;22:2703-12.


Otenio JK, Baisch RG, Carneiro VPP, Lourenço ELB, Alberton O, Soares AA, et al. Etnofarmacologia da Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) JF Macbr: Uma revisão/Ethnopharmacology of Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) JF Macbr: A review. Braz J Dev. 2020;6:10206-19.


Vautier H, Sanon M, Sacande M. Detarium microcarpum Guill. & Perr. Seed Leaflet. 2007;122.

Yaro AH, Yusif BB, Mu’azu AB, Matinja AI, Chutiyami M. Anti-Inflammatory and analgesic effect of Detarium microcarpum (Guill. and Perrs.) stem bark methanol extract in rats and mice. Int Res J Pharm Med Sci. 2017;1(1):7-10.

Agbo RI, Vihotogbé R, Missihoun AA, Dagba RA, Assogbadjo AE, Agbangla C. Indigenous knowledge of Detarium microcarpum Guill. & Perr. (Caesalpiniaceae) and implication for conservation in Benin (West Africa). Environ Dev Sustain. 2019;1-25.


Igwe OU, Friday C. Volatile constituents of hydrocolloids isolated from Afzelia africana and Detarium microcarpum seeds. Chem Int. 2017;3:286-91.

Corpus ID: 27457961

Amadi CN, Orisakwe OE. Herb-induced liver injuries in developing nations: An update. Toxics. 2018;6:24.


Chinedu E, Arome D, Ameh FS. A new method for determining acute toxicity in animal models. Toxicol Int. 2013;20(3): 224.

PMID: 24403732

Haschek WM, Rousseaux CG. Handbook of toxicologic pathology: Elsevier; 2013.

Ekeanyanwu RC, Njoku OU. Acute and subacute oral toxicity study on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed in albino rats. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 2014;4:194-202.


Lim KT, Lim V, Chin JH. Subacute oral toxicity study of ethanolic leaves extracts of Strobilanthes crispus in rats. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 2012;2:948-52.


Harun N, Indriastuti M, Fatimah A, Ega D, Safitri Y, Rosmayanti M. Effect of Ethanol Extract Sonchus arvensis Linn Leaf on BUN, SCr, ALT, AST in Healthy Male Albino mice (Rattus norvegicus). J Phys Conf Ser: IOP Publishing; 2019; 012188.


Ashafa AOT, Orekoya LO, Yakubu MT. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 2012;2:811-7. Available:

Ashafa A, Sunmonu T, Afolayan A. Toxicological evaluation of aqueous leaf and berry extracts of Phytolacca dioica L. in male Wistar rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:1886-9.


Akanji M, Nafiu M, Yakubu M. Enzyme activities and histopathology of selected tissues in rats treated with potassium bromate. Afr J Biomed Res. 2008;11.


Ilodigwe E, Akah P, Nworu C. Evaluation of the acute and subchronic toxicities of ethanol leaf extract of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. Int J Appl Res Nat Prod. 2010;3:17-21.


Jothy SL, Zakaria Z, Chen Y, Lau YL, Latha LY, Sasidharan S. Acute oral toxicity of methanolic seed extract of Cassia fistula in mice. Molecules. 2011;16:5268-82.


Gnanamani A, Sudha M, Deepa G, Sudha M, Deivanai K, Sadulla S. Haematological and biochemical effects of polyphenolics in animal models. Chemosphere. 2008;72: 1321-6.


Pincus RAMaMR. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods Book, 22 edition: Saunders; 2011.

Sabiba E, Rasool M, Vedi M, Navaneethan D, Ravichander M, Parthasarathy P, et al. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of Withania somnifera against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013;5:648-51.

Yakubu MT, Afolayan AJ. Effect of aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis Baker stem on haematological and serum lipid profile of male Wistar rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009;47(4):283-8.


Raza M, Shabanah O, Gamal El-Din T, Majed A. Effect of prolonged vigabatrin treatment on hematological and biochemical parameters in plasma, liver and kidney of Swiss albino mice. Sci Pharm. 2002;70:135-145.