Main Article Content
Plant extracts that have antioxidant activities show promising effect in the management of many diseases initiated by oxidative stress. The present study evaluates the phytochemical composition and in vitro antioxidant potentials of methanol extract of Duranta erecta leaves. The extract was subjected to phytochemical screening, DPPH inhibition, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), nitric oxide determination, antioxidant vitamins and minerals composition analysis. All analyses were carried out using standard biochemical methods. The phytochemical evaluation of the plant extract showed the presence of flavonoids (24.20 ± 0.14 mg QE/g), Alkaloids (15.87 ± 1.71 mg/g), total phenol (12.73 ± 0.61 mg GAE/g), tannins (9.24 ± 0.03 mg TAE/g), terpenoids (8.90 ± 0.96 mg/g), steroids (2.65 ± 0.55 mg/g) and saponins (5.55 ± 0.76 mg/g). The in vitro antioxidant determination showed that the extract had antioxidant properties in a concentration dependent manner. The antioxidant property of the sample was compared to that of ascorbic acid (for DPPH and nitric oxide determination) and gallic acid (for FRAP) as standards. The antioxidant mineral composition of the extract revealed the presence of zinc (1.82 ± 0.03 mg/100g) and selenium (0.59 ± 0.04 mg/100g). The antioxidant vitamins composition of the extract showed moderate concentrations of vitamin C (0.35 ± 0.01 mg/100 g) and vitamin E (0.68 ± 0.07 mg/100g). The result of this study revealed that methanol extract of Duranta erecta leaves could be a good source of antioxidants.
Newman DJ, Cragg G, Snader KM. The influence of natural products upon drug discovery. Natural Product Report. 2000;17:175-285.
Kirby GC. Medicinal plants and the control of parasites. Transaction of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1996;90:605-609.
Hostellmann K, Marston A. Twenty years of research into medicinal plants: results and perspectives. Phytochemical Review. 2002;1:275-285.
Ekwueme FN, Nwodo OFC, Joshua PE, Nkwocha C, Eluka PE. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of the aqueous leaf extract of Senna mimosoides: its effect in in vivo leukocyte mobilization induced by inflammatory stimulus. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2015;4(5):1176-1188.
Nwaoguikpe RN, Braide W, Ujowundu CO. Phytochemicals, minerals, vitamins and antioxidant compositions of three Nigerian medicinal plants. Instasci Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012;2(2):50-57.
Lee MT, Lin WC, Yu B, Lee TT. Antioxidant capacity of phytochemicals and their potential effects on oxidative status in animals — a review. Asian-Australas Journal of Animal Sciences. 2017;30:299-308.
Ogbuagu AS, Okoro K, Akpuaka MU, Ogbuagu JO, Ekpunobi UE, Ohaekenyem EC. Quantitative determination of some secondary metabolites and the anti - bacterial effects of the leave extracts of Duranta eracta. American Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2015;1(5):82-87.
Aymard GAC, Grande JRA. “Duranta neblinensis (Verbenaceae, Duranteae): a new species from Sierra de la Neblina, Amazonas state, Venezuela.” Brittonia. 2012;64(3):246–251.
Puri AV. Duranta repens linn. (verbenaceae): a comprehensive review of pharmacognostic, ethnomedicinal, pharmacological, and phytochemical aspects. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2018;11(11):91-96.
Donkor S, Larbie C, Komlaga G, Emikpe B. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant profiles of Duranta erecta parts. Biochemistry Research International. 2019;20:1-11.
Liguori I, Russo G, Curcio F, Bulli G, Aran L, Della-Morte D, Gargiulo G, Testa G, Cacciatore F, Bonaduce D, Abete P. Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases. Clinical Interventions in Aging. 2018;13:757–772.
Nigam V, Sodhi JS. Some medicinal plants with antioxidant activity- a review. International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2014;4(1):173-178.
Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Technique of Plant Analysis. Chapman and Hall, London. 1984:54-60.
Trease GE, Evans WC. Phenols and Phenolic glycosides. In: Textbooks of pharmacology. Balliese, Tindall and co publishers, London. 2002;12:343-383.
Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods. A Guide to Modern Technique of Plant Analysis. Chapman and Hall, London. 1998;3:88-185.
Soni A, Sosa S. Phytochemical analysis and free radical scavenging potential of herbal and medicinal plant extracts. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2013;2(4):22-29.
Riaz M, Rasool N, Bukhari I, Shahid M, Zubair M, Rizwan K, Rashid U. In vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and GC-MS analysis of Mazus goodenifolius. Molecules. 2012;17:14275-14287.
Ladan Z, Amupitan JO, Oyewale OA, Ayo RG, Temple E, Landan EO. Phytochemical screening of the leaf extract of Hyptis spicigera plant. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2014;8(5):83-88.
Ainsworth EA, Gillepie KM. Estimation of total phenolic content and other oxidation substrates in plant tissues using Folin Ciocalteu’s reagents. Nature Protocols. 2007;2(4):875-877.
Saeed N, Khan M, Shabbir M. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of whole plant extracts of Torilis leptophylla L. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012;16(12):221-235.
Gyamfi MA, Yonamine M, Aniya Y. Free-radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Ghana: Thonningia sanguine on experimentally-induced liver injuries. General Pharmacology. 1999;32:661-667.
Vijayakumar K, Vijaya A, Manikandan R. In vitro antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of psidium guajava leaves. International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences. 2015;3(5):145-149.
Pearson D. The Chemical Analyses of Food. Churchill Living Stone, London. 1976;7:3- 4.
APHA: Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Waste Water. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, D.C; 1998.
Iweala EE, Ogidigo JO. Effect of Celosia argentea F. Cristata (L.) on prostate specific antigen, antioxidant status and heamatological parameters in rats induced with benign prostate hyperplasia. Asian Journal of Biochemistry. 2015;10(1):42-51.
Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: impact on human health. Pharmacognosy Review. 2010;4(8):118–126.
Tiwari SC, Husain N. Biological activities and role of flavonoids in human health–a review. Indian Journal of Scientific Research. 2017;12(2):193-196.
Mishra A, Kumar S, Pandey AK. Scientific validation of the medicinal efficacy of Tinospora cordiofolia. The Scientific World Journal. 2013;1-8.
Plumb GW, Price KR, Williamson G. “Antioxidant properties of flavonol glycosides from green beans,” Redox Report. 1999;4(3):123–127.
Chen Y, Miao Y, Huang L. “Antioxidant activities of saponins extracted from Radix trichosanthis: an in vivo and in vitro evaluation.” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2014;14(1):86-96.
Ju YH, Clausen LM, Alrd KF, Almada AL, Helferich WG. β-sterol, β-sitosterol glucoside and a mixture of β- sitosterol and β-sitosterol glucoside modulate the growth of estrogen-responsive breast cancer cells in vitro and ovariectomized athymic mice. Journal of Nutrition. 2004;134:1145-1151.
Abou-Setta LM, Nazif NM, Shahat AA. Phytochemical investigation and antiviral activity of D. repens. Journal of Applied Science Research. 2007;3:1426-1433.
Kim TH, Lim HJ, Kim MS, Lee MS. Dietary supplements for benign prostatic hyperplasia: an overview of systematic reviews. Maturitas. 2012;73:180–185.
Nyamai DW, Arika WM, Rachuonyo HO, Wambani JR, Ngugi MP. Herbal management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Journal of Cancer Science and Therapy. 2016;8(5):130-134.
Kuo H, Chen ZS, Lin YL. Chemical components of the leaves of Duranta repens Linn. Chemical Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 1996;44:429-436.
Dvorkin L, Song K. Herbs for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2002;36:1443-1452.
Alam MN, Bristi NJ, Rafiquzzamanm M. Review on in vivo and in vitro methods evaluation of antioxidant activity. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2012;21:143–152.
Fidrianny I, Anggraeni N, Insanu M. Antioxidant properties of peels extracts from three varieties of banana (Musa sp.) grown in West Java-Indonesia. International Food Research Journal. 2018;25(1):57-64.
Feghhi-Najafabadi S, Safaeian L, Zolfaghari B. In vitro antioxidant effects of different extracts obtained from the leaves and seeds of Allium ampeloprasum subsp. persicum. Journal of Herbmed Pharmacology. 2019;8(3):256-260.
Marcocci L, Packer L, Droy-Lefai MT, Sekaki A, Gardes-Albert M: Antioxidant action of Ginkgo biloba extracts EGb 761. Methods in enzymology. 1994;234:462-475.
Hou M, Hu W, Wang A, Xiu Z, Shi Y, Hao K, Sun X, Cao D, Lu R, Sun J. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from pteris cretica l.: process optimization, hplc analysis, and evaluation of antioxidant activity. Antioxidants. 2019;8:425-441.
Brown KM, Arthur JR. “Selenium, selenoprotein and human health: a review.” Public Health Nutrition. 2001;4(2):599-600.
World Health Organisation: Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants Materials. Revised, Geneva; 2005.
Marreiro DN, Cruz KJ, Morais JB, Beserra JB, Severo JS, Soares de Oliveira AR: Zinc and oxidative stress: current mechanisms. Antioxidants. 2017;6(24):1-9.
Cruz KJC, Oliveira ARS. Antioxidant role of zinc in diabetes mellitus. World Journal of Diabetes. 2015;6:333–337.
Andrews GK. Regulation of metallothionein gene expression by oxidative stress and metal ions. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2000;59:95–104.
Achi NK, Onyeabo C, Ekeleme-Egedigwe CA, Onyeanula JC. Phytochemical, proximate analysis, vitamin and mineral composition of aqueous extract of Ficus capensis leaves in south eastern Nigeria. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2017;7(03):117-122.
Button KC. Prescription for nutritional healing. Penguin Putnam. 2004;4(5):478-479.
Zingg JM, Azzi A, Myedani M. Genetic polymorphisms as determinates for disease-preventive effects of vitamin E. Nutritional Review. 2008;66:406-410.