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Background: Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) belong to the family of Cyperaceae and the order of Commelinalis. It has been existing for more than 4,000 years ago.
Objective: To determine the nutritional composition (protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture and carbohydrate) of nut, to extract and characterize oil from varieties of tiger nuts, to determine the mineral elements presence in the nut.
Study Design: A descriptive research design was adopted by this study to determine the nutritional composition (protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture and carbohydrate) of nut, to extract and characterize oil from varieties of tiger nuts and to determine the mineral elements presence in the nut.
Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted at Biochemistry Department, Bayero University Kano, between April, 2019 to September, 2019.
Methods: The Proximate compositions were determined using the method describe by Association of official analytical chemist’s, while Carbohydrate were determined by difference. The physicochemical properties were determined using the method describe by American oil Chemist’s society and Mineral composition were determined.
Results: The proximate composition of the yellow variety was moisture (9.48%), ash (2.07%), fat (33.5%), protein (6.11%), crude fibre (17.5%) and carbohydrate (31.2%). Corresponding values of the brown variety was moisture (9.62%), ash (2.76%), fat (34.2%), protein (6.93%), crude fibre (15.3%) and carbohydrate (30.9%) respectively. The extracted oil has a golden colour and a nutty taste. The saponification, acid, peroxide, iodine and free fatty acid values of the yellow variety were found to be 210.8±4.28, 3.17±0.64, 1.00±0.52, 78.7±13.1 and 0.40±0.21 and the saponification, acid, peroxide, iodine and free fatty acid values of the yellow variety were also found to be 212.2±4.92, 3.36±0.56, 1.06±0.75, 76.5±14.6 and 0.42±0.04 and was not significantly (P> 0.05) different between th yellow and brown varieties respectively. The mineral element (mg/100g) of the brown variety is Mg 133.67, P 527.33, K 957.67, Ca 394, Cu 2.0 and Fe 1.86. Corresponding values for the yellow variety are Mg 118.13, P 159.61, K 384.33, Ca 152, Cu 2.0 and Fe 1.04. Lead and Cadmium were not detected in both varieties.
Conclusion: These results indicate that tiger nut tuber oil could be a good source of edible oil, highly nutritive and can provide a lot of energy like some starchy food.
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