Proximate Composition and Phytochemical Constituents of Matured Carica papaya Seed Extracts
Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry,
Aim: To investigate the proximate composition and phytochemical constituents of matured Carica papaya seed.
Study Design: Proximate composition was determined on Carica papaya seed powder while extracts for phytochemical analysis were obtained, in turn using five different solvents of varying polarity, namely n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. The study was carried out between March- April, 2019.
Results: The proximate composition of matured Carica papaya seed showed it contained crude fat (27.72%), carbohydrate (23.34%), crude fibre (21.25%), ash (10.25%), crude protein (9.65%) and moisture (7.34%). Qualitative phytochemical screening of Carica papaya seed extracts detected major phytochemicals except anthraquinones and quantitative analyses of these phytochemicals in all the five extracts showed that flavonoids was the most abundant phytochemical with 38.68%, 35.85%, 36.76%, 34.04% and 23.50% for methanol, aqueous, chloroform, n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions respectively while tannins was the least abundant phytochemical with 0.03% for methanol extract, 0.04% for n-hexane extract, 0.09% for aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts, and 0.14% for the chloroform extract.
Conclusion: Seeds of matured Carica papaya contain major nutrients that may be useful in nutrition. The presence of phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins in considerable quantities explained the medicinal activity of the plant material as encountered in its therapeutic uses.
- Proximate composition
- phytochemical constituents
- Carica papaya seed
- extraction solvent
How to Cite
Hever J, Cronise RJ. Plant- based nutrition for healthcare professionals: implementing diet as a primary modality in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. Journal of Geriatric Cardiology. 2017;14: 355-68.
Parle M, Gurditta G. Basketful benefits of papaya. International Research Journal of Pharmacy. 2011;2(7):6-12.
Vijay Y, Pradeep KG, Cheetan SC, Anju G, Bhupendra V. Carica papaya Linn: An overview. International Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2014;2(5):01-08.
FAO. FAOSTAT: Core production data. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Available: http://www.fao.org/statistics on 24th November;2019.
Rajasekhar P. Nutritional and medicinal value of papaya (Carica papaya Linn). World Journal of Pharmacy. 2017;6(8):2559-78.
Ukaegbu-Obi MK, Anyaegbunam PC, Enya E. Antibacterial activity of Carica papaya seeds on some human pathogens. Annals of west university of Timisoara, Ser Biology. 2018;21(1): 11-6.
Kanadi MA, Alhassan AJ, Ngwen AL, Yaradua AI, Nasir A, Wudil AM. Dose-dependent chemopreventive effect of methanol extract of Carica papaya seed on potassium bromate- induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology. 2019;2(1):1-12.
Azwanida NN. A review on the extraction methods used in medicinal plants, principle, strength and limitation. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 2015;4:196-201.
AOAC. Official methods of analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 15th Edition, Arlington, V.A. USA. 2000;200-214.
Harbone JB. Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques in plants analysis. 2nd Edition Chapman and Hall, London. 1984;1-10:100-17.
Zambrano MV, Dutta B, Mercer DG, Heather ML, Marianne TF. Assessment of moisture content measurement methods of dried food products in small-scale operations in developing country: A review. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 2019; 88: 484- 496.
Moses MO, Olanrawaju MJ. Proximate and selected minerals composition of ripe pawpaw (Carica papaya) seed and skin. Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research. 2018;7(3):75-7.
Otles S, Ozgos S. Health effect of dietary fibre. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia. 2014;13(2):191-202.
Hart FL, Fisher HJ. Introduction- general methods for proximate and mineral analysis. In: Modern food analysis. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 1971; 1-27.
Gupta VK, Kumria R, Garg M, Gupta M. Recent updates on free radicals scavenging flavonoids: an overview. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences. 2010;9(3):108-117.
Chung HS, Woo WS. A quinolone alkaloid with antioxidant activity from the aleurone layer of anthocyanin- pigmented rice. Journal of Natural Product. 2001;64:1579-1580.
Kumar S, Pandey AK. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: an overview. The Scientific World Journal; 2013.
Avalilable:http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/162750 on 24th November, 2019.
Sotnikova R, Kettmenn V, Kostalova D, Tobarska E. Relaxant properties of some aporphine alkaloids from Mahonia aquifolium. Methods and Findings in Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology. 1997;19(9):589-597.
Kaur R, Arora S. Alkaloids important therapeutic secondary metabolites of plant origin. Journal of Critical Reviews. 2015; 2(3):1-8.
Yildirims I, Kutlu T. Anticancer agents: Saponins and tannins. International Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2015;9 (6):332- 340.
Francis G, Makkar H, Kerem Z, Becker K. The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review. British Journal of Nutrition. 2003;88(6):587-605.
Jing F, Zhang L. Clinical applications of the naturally occurring or synthetic glycosylated low molecular weight drugs. In; Progress in molecular Biology and Translational Science. Academic press. 2019;163:487- 522.
Elwira S. activities of tannins- from In Vitro studies to clinical trials. Natural Product Communications.2015;10(11):1877-1884.
Eke ON, Augustine AU, Ibrahim HE. Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals and antibacterial screening extracts of Carica papaya fruit and seeds. International Journal of Modern Chemistry. 2014; 6(1):48- 56.
Abstract View: 102 times
PDF Download: 36 times