Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry https://journalajrb.com/index.php/AJRB <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry&nbsp;(ISSN: 2582-0516)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJRB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in the field of Biochemistry. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry en-US Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry 2582-0516 Antioxidant Potential and the Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Spondias cytherea Fruit Pulp on B16-F10 Melanoma Cell Cycle https://journalajrb.com/index.php/AJRB/article/view/30143 <p>Consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables bring substantial health benefits. <em>Spondias cytherea</em> is a plant belonging to the family of Anacardiaceae, the fruits are highly consumed in Cameroon and commonly known as “kassimango”. In this work, the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the aqueous extract of <em>Spondias cytherea</em> pulp was investigated. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and metal chelating power assays. The Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by Folin-ciocalteu test and aluminum chloride colorimetric test respectively. Selenium, and Zinc contents were evaluated. The effect of <em>S. cytherea</em> fruit aqueous extract on cell cycle of B16-F10 skin cancer cells was investigated using propidium iodide staining. The results revealed that the extract was efficient in reducing Fe<sup>3+ </sup>into Fe<sup>2+ </sup>and its ion chelating power increased with the extract concentration. The IC<sub>50</sub> value for DPPH radical was found to be 96.28 µg/ mL. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of <em>Spondias cytherea</em> fruits were 649.45 ± 0.71 mg GAE/100 g and 86.69 ± 0.02 mg CE/100 g of dry matter respectively. As far as the tested minerals are concerned, <em>S. cytherea</em> fruit presented 4.48 mg/100 g of zinc and 0.86 µg/100 g of selenium. It was observed that <em>S. cytherea</em> fruit aqueous extract inhibit the proliferation of B16-F10 cancer cells by inducing the cell cycle arrest at Sub G0 phase (apoptotic phase), G0/G1 (proliferation phase) and G2/M phase (mitosis phase). These results indicated that <em>Spondias cytherea</em> fruit have antioxidant and can be used in the management of cancer pending on further researches.</p> Feudjio Ndemanou Yolande Mouokeu Raymond Simplice Kamtchueng Monique Odette Teboukeu Gires Kodjio Norbert Ndonkou Jinette Tume B. Christopher ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-06 2020-10-06 1 11 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v7i430143 Protective Effects of Bi-Herbal Formulation of Aqueous Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Gongronema latifolium against Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity and Liver Injury in Rats https://journalajrb.com/index.php/AJRB/article/view/30144 <p>The study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of bi-herbal formulation of aqueous extracts of <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em> and <em>Gongronema latifolium</em> against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity and liver injury in rats. Forty (n=40) male Wistar albino rats were procured and separated into five groups. Groups I and II served as normal control and experimental control respectively. Groups III to V served as test groups. Rats of experimental control (group II) and test groups were induced with lethal dose of gentamicin. Test groups III and IV were placed on herbal formulation of aqueous extracts of <em>V .amygdalina</em>&nbsp; and <em>G. latifolium</em> respectively, whereas rats in test group V received bi-herbal formulation of aqueous extracts of <em>V. amygdalina</em> and <em>G. latifolium</em>. Nephrotoxic indices such as urea reduced significantly (p&lt;0.05) in test groups (III, IV, and V) when compared to experimental control (group II) and normal control (group I). Creatinine also reduced significantly (p&lt;0.05) in test groups III and V against group II (experimental control), and increased insignificantly (p&gt;0.05) in test group V when compared to normal control (group I). Rats induced with gentamicin had upsurge in liver enzymes indicating possible compromise of hepatocellular integrity but the ameliorating effects of the herbal formulations were seen clearly in test groups in this study as they tried to protect the hepatocellular integrity. The bi-herbal formulation of aqueous extract of 5% v/v each of <em>V. amygdalina</em> and <em>G. latifolium</em> offered the best protection as observed in this study. This study has revealed the protective effects of bi-herbal formulation of aqueous extract of <em>V. amygdalina</em>&nbsp; and <em>G. latifolium</em> against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity and liver injury in rats.</p> Nwadike Constance Dike-Ndudim Joy Oly-Alawuba Nkeiruka Ezekwe Ahamefula Akanazu Chidimma Aloy-Amadi Oluchi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-22 2020-10-22 12 20 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v7i430144 Study of the Variation of Some Biochemical Parameters in Rattus norgevicus https://journalajrb.com/index.php/AJRB/article/view/30145 <p>The biochemical assessment in animals is of capital interest to define the diagnosis of many diseases. The variation of biochemical parameters (urea, glycemia, creatinemia, transaminases: GPT and GOT, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, triglycerides and total lipids) is an indicator of the state of health of certain vital organs such as the kidney, liver, pancreas, veins, heart, etc... . For this study, to be able to determine the normal values of the rats, a set of batches of male and female Wistar rats was formed and acclimatized for 2 months. Each batch set consisted of thirty-nine (39) rats. Each rat was weighed and then sampled by venipuncture at the caudal level to collect their blood in a dry tube (red). The red tube was used to determine the biochemical parameters. The results of this study showed that some animals already had certain pathologies before the use of any beneficial or harmful substance on them. However, most of the animals used have normal biochemical parameters revealing the good state of their various vital functions (kidney, liver, heart, veins, pancreas, etc.). These values of determining standard biochemical parameters can form a basis for future tests.</p> Obou Constantin Okou Djako Sosthène Thierry Akré Gomé Michel Bleu Assandé Francis Ehounou Alain Dit Philippe Bidié ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-06 2020-11-06 21 34 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v7i430145 Changes in Some Biochemical Parameters and Body Weights of Healthy Albino Rats Following Palm-wine Administration https://journalajrb.com/index.php/AJRB/article/view/30146 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> To evaluate the effect of palm-wine administration on liver function, antioxidant parameters and body weights in albino rats.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Randomized block design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria between June and August, 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Twenty adult male albino rats were divided in to five groups of four rats each, group 1 was the control. The experimental groups were administered fresh and prolonged-fermented palm-wine thus; Group 2: 15ml/ of fresh palm wine, Group 3; 15ml/ kg of prolonged fermented palm wine, Group 4; 30ml/ kg of fresh palm wine, Group 5; 30 ml/ kg of prolonged fermented palm wine, for 28 days.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>AST activity decreased significantly (P&lt;0.05) in groups 3 (9.615±0.225), 4 (9.860±0.162) and 5 (9.390±0.624) when compared to the control (10.505±0.121). ALT activity was observed to decrease significantly (P&lt;0.05) in group 5 (7.415±0.548) when compared to control. ALP decreased significantly (P&lt;0.05) in group 3 (7.395±0.710) when compared to control (8.250±0.577). Total Bilirubin, was significantly (P&lt;0.05) lower in groups 3 (0.120±0.041) and 5 (0.170±0.012) compared to control (0.650±0.012). MDA decreased significantly (P&lt; 0.05) in groups 2, 3 and 5 compared to control. SOD decreased significantly (P&lt;0.05) in group 2 (2.735±0.110) compared to control (2.990±0.012). Groups 4 (2.700±0.046) and 5 (2.710±0.346) showed significant (P&lt; 0.05) decrease in GP<sub>X</sub> when compared to control. GSH was significantly (P&lt; 0.05) higher in groups 4 (5.950±0.058) and 5 (5.925±0.064) compared to control (3.110±0.035). By the third week, the mean body weights of the rats significantly (P&lt;0.05) decreased in all the groups compared to week 2.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Palm-wine did not exert remarkable toxic effect on the liver biomarkers and may not have induced oxidative stress but reduced body weights of the rats in the third week of administration.</p> G. S. Haruna O. B. Nwaikuku B. A. James N. Musa R. Valentine ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-12 2020-11-12 35 44 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v7i430146 Comparative Nephrotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity Effects of Kerosene, Gasoline, Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Biomass Fuel Exposure on Male Albino Rats https://journalajrb.com/index.php/AJRB/article/view/30147 <p>The effects of Kerosene, gasoline, and liquefied petroleum gas and biomass fuel exposure on biomarkers of kidney and liver were investigated in male wistar rats. Fifty adult male wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups of ten animals each. Rats in group A served as control (exposed to fresh air). Group B, C, D and E were exposed to inhalation of kerosene, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas and biomass fuel (wood smoke) respectively. All the exposures were done using whole body exposure chambers 70 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm measurement for six weeks, 6 days per week. Five millilitres of blood sample were collected and serum extracted at the end of six weeks. The serum concentration of urea, creatinine, uric acid and activities AST, ALT, γGT were determined using Cobas reagent kits manufactured by Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Sandhofer Strasse 116, D-68305 Mannheim, Germany. Values were analysed statistically using SPSS version 23.0.&nbsp; The result shows significant increase in the serum&nbsp; levels of urea, creatinine and uric acid of test groups relative to control (p&lt;0.05), though the effect appear to be more pronounced with exposure to kerosene, gasoline and biomass fuel. The exposure also led to significant increase in activities of AST, ALT and γGT (p&lt;0.05). These results suggest that repeated exposure to kerosene, gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas and biomass fumes may elicit hepatic and renal toxicity, thereby impairing the normal liver and kidney function.</p> Ude Tochukwu Meludu Samuel Chukwuemeka Dioka Chudi Emmanuel Chikezie Onyebuchi Desmond Awalu Chimezie Joseph Ibekailo Sylvester Nnaemeka ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-26 2020-11-26 45 52 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v7i430147 Potential Applications of Cereals and Yams as Functional Foods to Reduce the Risk of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases https://journalajrb.com/index.php/AJRB/article/view/30148 <p>The chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) are increasing throughout the populations and the burden of diseases is rising globally. Epidemiological evidences supports claim that intake of&nbsp; &nbsp;foods with certain health benefits and reducing the risk of NCDs are having positive correlation, therefore, a rise in demand for foods including phytochemicals can be observed. Cereals&nbsp; and&nbsp; &nbsp;yams are known to be rich sources of phytochemicals which can be utilized to produce functional food products having the potential of reducing the risk of chronic NCDs such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and certain types of cancers. In&nbsp; &nbsp;this review, the potentials of various cereals and yams that are being used as functional food products for human consumption to reduce the risk of NCD are being examined. The study further included a review on different phytochemicals in cereals and yams based functional food products and their bioactivity, potential of microencapsulation, cereal by products, influence of starch modification on functional food products, and capability of utilizing cereal by products in functional food industry.</p> N. N. G. Chiranthika K. D. P. P. Gunathilake Ananda Chandrasekara ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-27 2020-11-27 53 69 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v7i430148