Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Malathion Toxicity on Body Weight and Blood Profile in Male Rabbits

M. A. Adris, B. M. H. Elkhair, M. A. Abd Elbagi Rasha

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2022/v10i430229

Malathion is a widely used organophosphorous pesticide that a large number of population are undesirably exposing themselves to severe health risk due to taking up the contaminated foods, water and vegetables. The present study was aims to evaluate the chronic toxicity of orally administered low doses of malathion in rabbits based on the body weight loss and blood profile. The study was conducted on sixty male rabbits, non-adult male rabbits they were divided into three equal groups, thirty rabbits of each group. The rabbits were treated orally with different dose (5 and 15 mg/ kg/day) of malathion for thirty days. After treatment; body weight were recorded and blood samples were collected for blood profile analysis to investigate the health changes. Changes in total body weight in both treatment groups were showed reduction while total body weight in control group showed significant increase (p ≤0.5). The counts of WBC were showed significant increase in low and high dose respectively compared with control group. We concluded that malathion decrease   body weight.

Open Access Original Research Article

Purification of Alcohol Dehydrogenase Enzyme from Chicken Liver and Immobilization Onto Florisil

Havva Ersoz, Nuri Gulesci, Ramazan Bilgin

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 6-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2022/v10i430230

The enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is a dimeric enzyme in which each of its subunits has a Zn2+ metal-containing catalytic domain and a cofactor binding domain. This enzyme converts alcohol into an aldehyde. In this article, the activity of the enzyme was investigated by applying the immobilization process directly to the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme purified and activated florisil from the chicken liver. For this purpose, homogenization of chicken liver was achieved and its supernatants were separated by applying the ultracentrifugation process to the resulting homogenate. Then, % ammonium precipitation, dialysis, and ion exchange chromatography processes were performed, respectively. As a result of these processes, the hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase was purified 150.3 times compared to the coarse homogenate, and the specific activity of the enzyme was determined to be 0.631 U/mg protein. The activity of the enzyme directly immobilized was found to be 0.034 U/mg protein.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Achillea alpina L. and Achillea wilsoniana L.

Dong Chen, Zhiqiang Zhang, Yi Huang

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 15-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2022/v10i430231

Achillea species have been widely used as herbal medicine for a time. Achillea millefolium L. has one of the broadest applications in herbal medicine because of its antioxidant activity. As congeneric subspecies of the A. millefolium L., the A. alpina L. and A. wilsoniana L. also have many medical properties. This paper explored the essential oils of these two plants by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the differences in their antioxidant activity. The result showed that the major components of essential oil from A. wilsoniana L. were (+)-2-bornanone (8.51%), (-)-β-bisabolene (6.7%), chamazulene (6.4), neointermedeol (6.12%). And the major components of essential oil from A. alpina L. were chamazulene (6.53%), (1S)-(1)-beta-pinene (5.19%), nerolidol (3.6%), and esquisabinen (2.7%). The results indicated that A. alpina L. had the highest composition of chamazulene compared with the other two. Due to the variety of compounds in the two essential oils, their antioxidant activities were different on DPPH and ABTS assays. The antioxidant activity of A. wilsoniana L. was better than A. alpina L. but lower than the A. millefolium L.

Open Access Original Research Article

Purification of β-Glucosidase, One of the Flavor-enhancing Food Enzymes, from Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and Its Biochemical Characterization

Hatibe Ertürk Kara, Sabiha Tümay Akgün, Selma Sinan, Yusuf Turan

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 38-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2022/v10i430233

Aims: Determination of the biochemical properties of β-glucosidase in peppermint, which is rich in aromatic compounds.

Study Design: β-glucosidase was purified from mint, and biochemical characterization of the purified enzyme was performed.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences Biochemistry laboratory.

Methodology: Enzyme purification was performed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography using a Sepharose 4B-L-tyrosine-1-naphthylamine gel. Optimum pH, temperature, and substrate specificity of the purified enzyme were determined. The effects of glucose, δ-gluconolactone and some heavy metals on the enzyme activity were investigated.

Results: The enzyme was purified with 8-fold and 28% yield. The purified protein from mint was visualized at 65 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The substrate specificity of the purified β-glucosidase from mint was determined against para- and ortho-nitrophenyl β-D-glucopyranoside (p/o-NPG) substrates. The Km values were 0.4 and 0.9 mM, and the Vmax values were 102.2 EU and 96.6 EU, respectively. While the optimum pH for the purified enzyme was 6, the optimum temperature was 35°C. Effects of heavy metals Ag+2, Fe+3, Zn+2, Cu+2, and Pb+2 on the purified enzyme activity were investigated. Relative activities of heavy metals were introduced into the reaction medium as 0.75 mM samples without any known inhibitors in the environment. Fe+3 increased the enzyme activity, and Ag+2, Pb+2, Cu+2, and Zn+2 inhibited the enzyme, and their relative activities were 78, 76, 22, and 31%, respectively. Glucose and δ-gluconolactone competitively inhibited the enzyme activity when p-NPG was the substrate. Ki values of glucose and δ-gluconolactone were determined as 0.034±0.001 and 0.038±0.002 mM, respectively.

Conclusion: Determination of the biochemical properties of β-glucosidase from mint, which has commercial and pharmacological importance due to the phenolic substances it contains, will contribute to studies on improving food quality.

Open Access Review Article

An Exercise of Comparative Chemistry – On the Possibility of an Alternative to the Chemical World of Today Living Things

Dumitru Petru I. Iga

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 22-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2022/v10i430232

At most four types (groups) of isomers have been revealed, in natural things or as envisaged structures: meso, C2 symmetrical, irrechi, constitutional. In vertebrate almost exclusively constitutional isomers have been found. On the other hand, all fundamental natural combinations, found as constitutional isomers in vertebrates, are able to form symmetric isomers. (Hence, they keep symmetry as a possibility and not as a reality). Symmetric isomers of constitutional ones also possess functional groups. Therefore, a comparison could be made between a real and a possible situation, and an interesting and unique conclusion results from this comparison. A series of symmetric compounds, especially C2 symmetrical ones, have been isolated from plants and microorganisms, however no counterparts of these combinations were ever found in vertebrates. However, a preliminary conclusion could be drawn: symmetry phenomenon is much better represented in plants and microorganisms than in vertebrates. Of symmetric isomers, the meso ones are characterized by a mirror plane of symmetry, i.e. an area capable to hide (mask) atoms or planar structures of polarized light.