Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorative Effect of Methanol Extract of Hymenocardia acida Leaves on Gentamicin-Induced Renal Toxicity in Rats

Nweje-Anyalowu Paul Chukwuemeka, Idakwoji Precious Adejoh, Iserhienrhien Lucky Osafanme, Anosike Joy Chizoba

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2018/v3i229818

Aim: This study evaluated the nephroprotective effect of methanol extract of Hymenocardia acida leaves in rat model of gentamicin induced renal damage.

Materials and Methods: Twenty- four (24) Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 150- 200g were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each; Group I served as the control and received normal saline, Group II- IV received gentamicin (40 mg/kg, i.p), Groups III and IV also received 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt., p.o methanol extract of Hymenocardia acida leaves respectively for 15 days. Body weight measurement, serum urea, creatinine, electrolytes analyses and histopathological examination of kidney were carried out.

Results: Gentamicin treatment caused nephrotoxicity as evidenced by marked elevation in Serum urea, creatinine, decreased sodium and chloride ions, elevated serum level of potassium ion and pathological signs such as congestion, focal areas of inflammation, tubular necrosis, and glomerular atrophy. Administration of the extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/ body wt significantly (p< 0.05) decreased Creatinine and urea levels, significantly (p< 0.05) increased sodium and chloride ion and significantly (p< 0.05)  decreased potassium ion level when compared to the gentamicin- alone- treated group. Histopathological analysis also revealed a gradual reversal of the pathological features caused by gentamicin toxicity.

Conclusion: It was concluded that the extract possesses nephroprotective potential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Separation and Optimisation of a Sucrose Density Gradient Centrifugation Protocol for Isolation of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC)

Sudeep Nagaraj, Shubha Nivargi, Leelavathy Nanjappa, Jagadish Tavarekere Venkataravanappa

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2018/v3i229820

One step centrifugation procedure used commonly for separation of blood cells is the ficoll gradient centrifugation. In this method, after centrifugation, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are located on the top of the separation fluid, whereas other blood cells erythrocytes and granulocytes sediment to the bottom. In the present study 75% of lymphocyte suspension could be separated by using a one-step density gradient centrifugation of sodium heparin blood with Sucrose. Sucrose was diluted into different concentrations using miliQ water (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%,70%, 80%, 90%, 100%,). 4 mL of diluted blood was layered on 4 mL of each sucrose solution and centrifuged for 45 minutes at 1000 rpm. Clear separation of PBMCs could be observed in solution with 40% sucrose. The separated PBMCs were analysed in haeme analyser which showed 75% lymphocytes, 23% monocytes and 2% of other cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and in vitro Antioxidant Properties of Methanol and Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Geophila obvallata

Iserhienrhien Lucky Osafanme, Okolie Paulinus Ngozi

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2018/v3i229823

Aim: This study investigated the phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant properties of methanol and aqueous leaf extracts of Geophila obvallata using standard methods.

Materials and Methods: The in vitro antioxidant assays carried out were 1, 1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, Nitric oxide (NO•) radical scavenging activity assay, 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS•+) radical cation scavenging assay, ferric reducing properties and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays.

Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, steroids, saponins, terpernoids and cardiac glycosides in both extracts. Relative to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract contained a higher amount of the secondary metabolites. However, both extracts exhibited appreciable and dose-dependent capacities for quenching DPPH, ABTS•+ and NO• free radicals, and potent ferric reducing ability to levels comparable to those of ascorbic acid. The crude methanol extract showed significantly increased (P<0.05) antioxidant activity than the aqueous extract.

Conclusion: It was concluded that the extract possesses strong antioxidant properties due to its content of phytochemicals, and provides scientific basis for its ethno medicinal applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorative Effect of L-Arginine as Antioxidant Agent on Hematological and Testicular Functions in Lead-Induced Toxicity in Male Rats

Marwan A. Ibrahuim

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2018/v3i229824

Aims: The present study aimed to elucidate the protective role of L-Arginine on lead – induced suppression of the pathway of heme synthesis and the toxicity of lead on testis.

Methodology: The current study included two experiments; the first was carried out on two groups to follow up the changes that could occur in iron status and reproductive system of male rats because of the lead exposure. The second experiment, three comparisons were made between three groups of rats with lead treatment only and other three groups rats with lead treatment followed by additional of daily injection of L-Arginine intraperitoneal about 500 mg L-Arginine / kg.b.wt. / day for 10, 20 and 30 days after the end of lead treatment.

Results: Lead significantly abolished heme synthesis presented by decrease in Hb, Fe and ceruloplasmin (Cp) and elevation in total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin. Furthermore, testosterone (total and free) significantly decreased after rats treated with 1% lead acetate while, estradiol (E2) and acid phosphatase (total and prostatic) were elevated. The concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphat (DHEA-S) did not change after lead treatment.

Conclusion: Daily treatment with 500 mg L-Arginine/kg body weight prevented the suppressive effects of lead on hematological parameters and testicular functions. The mechanism of L-Arginine action on lead induced changes was attributed to protection of antioxidant capacity in cells in addition to the ability of L-Arginine to scavenge free radicals and acts as cell membrane stabilizer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Evaluation of the Antitumor Activity of (E)-3-((2-(5-(4-chlorophenyl) thiazol-2-yl) hydrazono) methyl) benzene-1,2-diol “In vitro and In vivo Study”

Faten Z. Mohamed, Mohamed S. Elghreeb, Moustafa S. Abdelhamid, Hazem A. Elbaz

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2018/v3i229826

Background: Thiazole nucleus–containing compounds have an antitumor efficiency against various types of cancer.

Purpose: The present study was designed to determine the cytotoxic effect of newly synthesized thiazole derivative (TD1) on human cancer cell lines, in addition to evaluate its antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in mice.

Materials and Methods: TD1 was synthesized and investigated for its cytotoxic effect on HCT116 (colon cancer), HepG2 (liver cancer), PC3 (prostate cancer) and MCF7 (breast cancer). The effect of TD1 on cell viability, tumor volume, and percent of increase in life span (% ILS) in Ehrlich–bearing mice was studied. Hematological parameters, liver and kidney function tests were evaluated. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione levels were determined in liver and kidney tissues. The expression of P53 in EAC was analyzed by flow cytometry.

Results: TD1 demonstrated an inhibitory effect on both cancer cell lines in vitro and Ehrlich ascites cells in vivo. TD1 increased in life span of Ehrlich–bearing mice compared to control. Cell cycle and flow cytometric analysis revealed that TD1 directed Ehrlich cells toward apoptosis by increasing of P53 expression.

Conclusion: It was concluded that TD1 have a potent antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice beside a cytotoxic effect on MCF-7, PC3, HepG2 and HCT-116.