Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Oral Intake of African Locust Bean on Fasting Blood Sugar and Lipid Profile of Albino Rats

Augustine I. Airaodion, Edith O. Airaodion, Emmanuel O. Ogbuagu, Uloaku Ogbuagu, Etinosa U. Osemwowa

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2019/v4i430073

Background: African locust bean is a condiment believed to be for the people of low class. Its health importance has not been fully known especially to the so-called high class.

Aim: This study is aimed at investigating the effect of African locust bean on fasting blood sugar and lipid profile of albino rats.

Methods: African locust bean (ALB) was purchased from a local market at Orita-Challenge area of Ibadan, Nigeria. They were sun dried and milled into powder using an electronic blender. The powder was extracted with n-hexane (40–60°C) in a soxlet extractor for 18 hours. The defatted, dried marc was repacked and then extracted with methanol. The dried marc was extracted with methanol in the soxlet apparatus for 10 hours. The methanol solution was subsequently concentrated in a rotatory evaporator at 40°C. Ten adult male albino rats with body weight between 100 and 120 g were purchased from the Animal Holding Unit of the Department of Physiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. They were allowed 7 days acclimatization period and were divided randomly into 2 groups of five rats each. Animals in group 1 were administered normal saline solution while those in group 2 were administered extract of African locust bean. The animals were exposed to the African Locust Bean and saline solution at a dose of 3 ml per 100 g body weight 12 hourly via oral route of administration. After fourteen days of administration, the animals were fasted overnight and anaesthetized using diethyl ether. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture.

Results: ALB was observed to significantly lower fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol and triglyceride but increased HDL-cholesterol significantly when compared to those of the control group at p<0.05. LDL-cholesterol was not significantly different when animals treated with ALB were compared with those of the control group.

Conclusion: Increased blood sugar and hyperlipidemia has been implicated in diabetes. Cholesterolgenesis is a major onset of atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, ALB can serve as prophylaxis and remedies for several diseases caused by hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia such as diabetes and coronary heart disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Indices and Haematological Studies of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Persea americana Leaf in Albino Rats

J. A. Mashi, A. M. Sa’id, F. Bello, H. M. Yakasai, B. Bello, R. I. Idris

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2019/v4i430074

The aim of this present study was to evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate extract of P. americana (avocado) on liver and kidney function, lipid profile as well as haematological parameters in albino rats. A total of 20 albino rats were used for this experiment and they were divided into four groups of 5 (A-D) rats each. Group A served as normal control, group B-D served as experimental groups administered with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of ethyl acetate extract of Persea americana leaf per day for 4 weeks respectively. This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Bayero University, Kano, in the month of May, 2018. Liver function test (colorimetric method), kidney indices and lipid profile (spectrophotometry method), and hematological examination (SYSMEX XE-2000) were analysed. Administration of ethyl acetate extract did not produced significant effect on liver and kidney indices in all the treated groups. The extract significantly (P=.05) decrease total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein in all the treated groups. Haematological parameters analysed were not significantly affected in all the treated groups. Thus, ethyl acetate extract of P. americana leaf possesses hypolipidemic potentials and relatively safe for kidney, liver and hematological indices but extremely high doses may not be advisable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Action of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Some Pathogenic Fungi

V. N. Agi, C. A. Azike

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2019/v4i430075

Background: The antifungal activities of fresh garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on the growth of three known pathogenic fungi were investigated. The test organisms were Aspergillus spp Penicillium spp and Candida albicans.

Methodology: Two different concentrations of extracts were used. Concentration I which had crude extract of 100 g/ 100 ml of sterile distilled water and concentration II with extract of 100 g/50 m1 of distilled water. Ten mls of each extract was added to each 125 m1 of SAB (saboraud dextrose agar) media before and after sterilization.

Results: The extracts added to the media after its sterilization inhibited the growth of the pathogenic fungi samples more than the extracts added to the media before sterilization. This indicates that the active ingredients present in the extracts which have the antifungal effect observed is negatively affected and inactivated at 121ºC for 15 minutes. It can be inferred that garlic and ginger have different levels of therapeutic values on fungi.

Open Access Original Research Article

Combined Antioxidant Recovery Properties of Fruit Juice Extracts of Cucumber and Water Melon on Lipid Profile and Gonadal Steroid Levels of Cadmium Induced Testicular Damage on Male Albino Rats

F. C. Anacletus, B. Nwakaku, K. T. Nwauche

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2019/v4i430076

The antioxidant protective effects of fruit juice of cucumber and watermelon on lipid profile of cadmium induced toxicity on male albino rats was investigated. Forty male rats were divided into eight groups. Group NC served as normal control group while group PC was positive control that was not treated but induced with cadmium. Groups I to VI received high dose and low dose of juice of Cucumber and Watermelon respectively. Excluding the normal control group, other groups were fed with lard 14 days before treatment commenced.  Doses of 0.8 mg/kg-high dose and 0.4 mg/kg-low dose for cucumber and watermelon respectively. At the 4th and 6th week, biochemical parameters were assayed. Results revealed that the levels of total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL and triglyceride significantly (P˂0.05) were decreased compared to positive control but HDL was increased in treatment groups compared to positive control. Pretreatment with cucumber and watermelon juice indicated that total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL and triglyceride significantly (P˂0.05) were decreased compared to positive control but HDL was increased in treatment groups compared to positive control. The result also revealed an increase in testosterone levels in treated groups after 4 weeks of administration of whole extract of cucumber and watermelon when compared to their week 2 values. Testosterone level in positive control was also reduced significantly from 1.5±0.14 ng/ml to 0.46±0.31 ng/ml. Histological evaluation of the testes of normal control group revealed that the interstitium was intact with leydig cells present and maturing germ cells embedded in normal seminiferous tubules while the other groups that were induced with cadmium only showed morphology of testes with empty seminiferous tubules and consolidated interstitial spaces.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity Impact on Bioaccumulation of Potentially Toxic Elements in African Giant Land Snail (Archachatina margenata) Treated with Different Soils and Its Ecological Risk Assessment

Oguh C. Egwu, Ugwu C. Victor, Uzoefuna C. Casmir, Usman Sa’adat, Nkwocha C. Chibueze, Amanabo Musa

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2019/v4i430077

This study investigated the concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb) in African Giant Land Snail (AGLS) treated with different soil samples dumpsite (A), mining site (B) and control soil (C) (a reserve area where no activities) use in farming AGLS and also to ascertain if they are within permissible limits and its ecological risk assessment on the consumption. Soil samples; at site A, B and C was collected at 0-30 cm depth with the aid of soil auger and were used for AGLS farming, to ascertain whether the potentially toxic elements (PTEs) concentration were within the permissible limits and their ecological risk assessment on AGLS consumption. A total of 54 juvenile snails of similar weights was used for the study. The experiment lasted for six month (182 days), during which the snails were subjected to similar dietary reign and equal quantity of feed. Snail’s morphological characteristics such as Weight, length and diameter of its shell were measured after farming. The soil samples were analysed for PTEs before and after farming, and snail were also analyzed for PTEs after farming for six month using atomic absorptions spectrophotometer (AAS). The ecological health risk from the consumption of these snails was assessed using standard methods and formulas. The result of different soil before and after farming shows a significant different (P<0.05) between the activities sites (dump and mining) and the control site. The concentration of PTEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, and Pb) in snails treated with dump site soil were 3.05, 3.89, 3.60, 2.89, 3.98, and 2.55 mg/kg, and snails treated with mining site soil recorded 2.73, 2.74, 3.91, 4.96, 2.88 and 4.82 mg/kg. The values were greater than the maximum permissible limit of 0.5, 2.0, 0.3, 0.04, 0.1 and 0.1 mg/kg respectively recommended by FAO/WHO compared to the control. The study concludes that snail bioaccumulate toxic elements from the soil used in rearing them which is deleterious to humans when consumed. Also the DIM, HQ, HI on the consumption of snail reared with dumpsite, mining site soils are nearly free of risks, but continuous consumption can lead to bioaccumulation in the food chain.