Open Access Original Research Article

Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Acetone Extract of Brassica juncea L. Leaf

Pratima Khandayataray, Meesala Krishna Murthy

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2019/v5i130078

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the phytochemical screening; antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of acetone extract of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern leaf.

Methods: Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening was conducted by following standard protocols. To assess the antioxidant properties, Nitric oxide (NO) assay, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'- Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, ABTS), Protease inhibitor assay, anti-inflammatory and reducing power (%) activities were performed by using the standard methodology.

Results: Qualitative investigation showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, phenols, flavonoids, proteins, saponins and tannins respectively. Quantitative analysis showed protein content was more followed by phenolic content, glucose concentration, total antioxidant activity and flavonoid content respectively. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) and EC50 values along with standards were estimated by using NO, DPPH and ABTS respectively. Protease inhibitor (%) and reducing power (%) activities were increased dose dependent manner, at higher dose 1000µg/mL the Protease inhibitor (%) and reducing power (%) activities 537.95 ± 26.58 (%) and 41.28 ± 7.28 were observed respectively.

Conclusion: Based on our results, we concluded that acetone extracts of B.juncea leaf showed potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Examination of Conditions for Optimized Decellularized Liver Preparation

Jaeyong Cho, Yukako Fukuda, Nana Shirakigawa, Hiroyuki Ijima

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2019/v5i130079

Aims: The main aim of our study was to examine the concentration of surfactant that can cause significant disruption of the resulting decellularized liver structure. Furthermore, it is our goal to determine the suitable solvent that can boost the potential of each surfactant.

Methodology: The porcine liver discs of 8-mm diameter and 2-mm thickness were prepared. These were soaked in aqueous solution of either sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or Triton X-100 (TX), and placed on a rotational shaking machine (100 rpm).

Results: TX was unable to completely remove the cellular components under any of our experimental conditions. The salt concentration did not affect the decellularization in TX. The pH buffer, however, was found to affect the decellularization. Also, in the solvent study, the conditions under which SDS effectively exerted power were not the salt concentration and pH, but the condition that was close to water. We also confirmed that the shrinkage of tissue occurred when decellularization with 0.1% SDS in CMF-PBS. However, 0.1% SDS in distilled water didn't cause the deformation of tissue. This is considered to be due to the low salt concentration of solvent.

Conclusion: This work establishes the concentration range of the surfactant that causes the collapse of the cellular structure during decellularization. In addition, the solvent suitable for each surfactant has also been established.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Biochemical Studies on Organometallic Compounds as Anticancer Agents

F. Z. Mohammed, Elsherbiny H. Elsayed, Atef E. Abd Elbaky, H. M. Shalaby

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2019/v5i130080

This study aims to synthesis of copper complexes of 2,3-dihydroxy benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3a,b), followed by evaluating their in vitro anticancer properties. The prepared compounds have been also evaluated for their ability to induce apoptosis. A total number of 80 adult female Swiss albino mice weighing 20-25 gm were divided randomly into 8 groups (10 mice /each group). The in vitro cytotoxic activities of compounds (3a, 3b) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of synthesized compound 3a were found to be 50 μg/mL against MCF-7, HepG2 and PC3 cell lines; also, Minimum inhibitory concentrations of synthesized compound 3b were found to be 50 μg/mL in all cell lines. The apoptotic effect of compounds 3a and 3b were evaluated by measurement Caspase-3 activity and Bcl-2 concentration. The mean values of Caspase-3 activity in positive control were found to be 2.6151 (ng/mL). On the other hand, the mean values of Bcl-2 in positive control were found to be 3.7 (ng/mL). The compounds (3a & 3b) exhibited a significant anticancer activity towards MCF-7, HEPG2 and PC3 cancer cell lines.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vivo Study on Organometallic Compounds as Anticancer Agents

F. Z. Mohammed, Elsherbiny H. Elsayed, Atef E. Abd Elbaky, H. M. Shalaby

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2019/v5i130082

This study aims to study the in-vivo anticancer effect of the synthesized copper complexes of 2,3-dihydroxy benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3a,b), followed by evaluating their antioxidant activity.  Materials and methods: A total number of 80 adult female swiss albino mice weighing 20-25 gm were divided into 8 groups (10 mice /each group).  The acute toxicity was estimated by intraperitoneal injection of the compounds (3a, b). Results:  We found that, 5 mg /kg and 10 mg /kg were considered to be the most effective dose of compounds 3a & 3b, respectively. The mean volume of EAC in the positive control group was found to be 4.2 ±0.5 (mL), this value was significantly decreased by 100%, (p<0.001) for 3a & 3b treated groups, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical and Histological Changes Associated with Azo Food Dye (Tartrazine) in Male Albino Rats

Ibioku Elekima, Ogechi Edna Nwachuku, Damion Ukwukwu, Harrison Ugo Nwanjo, Nsirim Nduka

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2019/v5i130083

Aim: To study the effect of chronic exposure of tartarzine at ADI doses on some biochemical parameters of male albino rats.

Study Design: The design involved chronic study. In the study, the experiment was divided into phase 1, 2, and 3 which lasted for 30, 60 and 90 days respectively. In each phase, 40 rats were used and were divided into treatment and control groups. The treated groups were given 7.5 mg/kg of tartrazine orally on daily basis over the stipulated periods while the control groups were not treated with tartrazine.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria within a period of 12 months (December 2017 – December 2018).

Methodology: At the end of the chronic study, 5mls of whole blood specimens was collected by means of cardiac puncture into Lithium Heparin bottles and fluoride oxalate bottles (for glucose only). The collected specimens were spun, plasma collected and analyzed for glucose, Lipase, AST, ALT, ALP, total protein, albumin and globulin. Renal, hepatic, and pancreatic tissues collected were fixed in 10% formol saline and later examined histologically using H&E stain. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism version 5.03 (San Diego, California, USA).

Results: In the chronic treatment, glucose indicated significant increases after 30, 60, and 90 days of chronic treatment at ADI doses. Urea, AST, and ALT showed significantly higher values after 60 of treatment while creatinine, ALP, total protein, albumin and globulin indicated significantly higher values after 90 days of treatment. However, lipase did not show any significant difference after 30, 60, and 90 days of treatment. Histologically, hepatic distortions such as fatty degeneration, vacuolation, pcynosis, and compression of central vein were seen in the liver section. In the renal section, hyaline cast in proximal tubules, hypercellularity of messengial cells, and inflammation of the glomerulus were observed in the treated rats while the histology of the pancreas indicated mild vacuolation of the islet region. However, the pancreatic ducts and acinar cells were not distorted.

Conclusion: The administration of tartrazine over a period of 30 days at ADI dose did not indicate hepatocellullar and renal derangements as well histological distortions in liver, pancreas and kidneys.  However, after 60 and 90 days, mild hepatocellular, pancreatic, and renal derangements were seen.