Open Access Original Research Article

Haematopoietic Potential of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Talinum triangulare in Wistar Rats

A. I. Airaodion, E. O. Ogbuagu, J. A. Ekenjoku, U. Ogbuagu, E. O. Airaodion

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2019/v5i230084

Aim: This study focuses on assessing the haematopoietic potential of ethanolic extract of Talinum triangulare leaves in Wistar rats.

Methods: Fresh plants of T. triangulare were purchased from a local market in Orita-Challenge area of Ibadan, Nigeria. They were air dried at room temperature in an open laboratory space for 21 days and milled into powder. The extraction was done using soxhlet apparatus and ethanol as the solvent. The ethanol was evaporated in a rotary evaporator at 35°C with a yield of 2.76 g which represents a percentage yield of 11.04%. Ten adult male Wistar rats with body weight between 150 and 170 g were used for this study. They were randomly divided into two groups of five rats each. Animals in group A were administered saline solution while those in group B were administered T. triangulare leaf extract. The administration was done 12 hourly for twenty-eight days at 100 mg/kg body weight via oral route since the plant is consumed orally. At the end of the treatment, animals were fasted overnight and anaesthetized using diethyl ether. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture into heparinized bottles. Haematological parameters were determined using standard methods.

Results: A  significant increase was observed in the PCV, Hb, RBC, MCV, WBC, lymphocyte and platelet counts of control animals when compared with those treated with leaf extract of T. triangulare at p<0.05. However, treatment had no significant difference on the neutrophil of animals.

Conclusion: The significant increase observed in the erythrocyte parameters of animals used in this study indicates that T. triangulare leaves have haematopoietic properties and can be used to boost blood level especially in menstruating and pregnant women as well as anaemia patients. Its ability to significantly increase white blood cell parameters is an indication that T. triangulare leaves can boost the immune system and thus defend the body against xenobiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Theoretical Investigation into the Change in the Number of Water Molecules in Solvent Inaccessible Region of an Enzyme and Enzyme-substrate Complex

Ikechukwu Iloh Udema, Abraham Olalere Onigbinde

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2019/v5i230085

Background: There may be dry enzymes, but water remains indispensable for the catalytic action of enzymes. There is not as much interest in how the presence of a drug such as aspirin and a psychoactive compound such as ethanol may affect the water-mediated role of the enzyme.

Objectives: The objectives of this research are: 1) To assess the changes in the number of water molecules interacting with the enzyme-substrate complex and the solvent inaccessible region of a protein, 2) to determine the free energy difference due to preferential solvation and hydration, and 3) to re-examine theoretical issues in literature and relate them to the interpretation of the results.

Methods: A major theoretical research and minor experimentation using Bernfeld method.

Results and Discussion: The presence of ethanol/aspirin alone yielded only dehydration of the osmolyte inaccessible region and the enzyme substrate complex (ES). There was positive free energy difference (DDG) if the equilibrium constant for hydration change (Keq(1))> the equilibrium constant for folding-unfolding transition (Keq(3)); it is negative where Keq(3)> Keq(1). Analysis of various models made them valuable for the interpretation of result for feature application.

Conclusion: The change in the number of water molecules in an osmolyte inaccessible region of the enzyme and those interacting with the ES may be either positive or negative due respectively to sucrose and ethanol/aspirin. The spontaneity of two processes, hydration and folding-unfolding transition, the free energy difference, differs. The model for water stripping, preferential interaction concept, and the KBI for osmolation and hydration can guide the interpretation of the effects of any cosolute.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Oral Intake of Sodium Benzoate on Serum Cholesterol and Proinflammatory Cytokine (Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha [TNF-α] and Interleukin-6 [IL-6]) Levels in the Heart Tissue of Wistar Rats

Efekemo, Oghenetekevwe, Akaninwor, Joyce Oronne, Essien, Eka Bassey

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2019/v5i230086

The in vivo effect of oral administration of varying concentrations (150, 250, 500 mg/kg body wt.) of sodium benzoate (a known preservative in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry) on serum cholesterol and proinflammatory markers in heart tissue of wistar albino rats were investigated. The oral intake was administered at 24 hour intervals for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The groups were labelled; control (group 1), 7days (group 2), 14days (group 3), 21 days (group 4) and 28days (group 5). The rats were fed normal diet ad libitum and blood sample for the determination was taken at the end of the duration. For serum cholesterol, the result obtained for sodium benzoate concentrations administered showed significant (p≤0.05) decrease in cholesterol levels at group 5 for 250 mg/kg body wt. and grp 2, 3, 4 and 5 for 500 mg/kg body wt of experimental rats. The proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 of heart tissue showed significant decrease at grp 4 and 5 for 250 mg/kg body wt and 2, 3, 4 and 5 for 500 mg/kg body wt. values were all compared to control. These findings suggest modulation of the inflammatory pathway due to administration of the preservative.

Open Access Original Research Article

Theoretical Insight into Preferential Interaction Issues and Solution Structure, and Contentious Apparent Hydrated Molar Volume of Cosolute

Ikechukwu Iloh Udema, Abraham Olalere Onigbinde

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2019/v5i230087

Background: There seems to be a mathematical or a conceptual error in an equation whose substitution into other equations for the determination of an apparent hydrated molar volume (V1) of a cosolute leads to an incorrect answer.

Objectives: The objectives are 1) To show theoretically that the preferential interaction parameter (PIP) is an extensive thermodynamic quantity, 2) rederive new equations and reexamine various equations related to solution structure, 3) apply derived equation for the determination of V1, and 4) determine m-values and cognate preferential interaction parameter (PIP).

Methods: The research is mainly theoretical and partly experimental. Bernfeld method of enzyme assay was adopted for the generation of data.

Results and Discussion: The investigation showed that equation linking chemical potential of osmolyte to solution structure is dimensionally invalid; PIP was seen as a thermodynamically extensive quantity. Equations for the graphical determination of V1 of the osmolyte were derived. With ethanol alone, there were  - m-value and + PIP; with aspirin alone, there were  + m-value and - PIP. There was a change in sign in m-value with sucrose and ethanol/aspirin mixture, and a change in sign in PIP when the latter is taken as function of [ethanol]/[aspirin] and [sucrose](c3).

Conclusion: A solution structure is as usual determined by either a relative excess or a deficit of the solution component either in the bulk or around the macromolecular surface domain; the PIP remains thermodynamically an extensive quantity. To be valid there is a need to introduce a reference standard molar concentration or activity to some equations in literature. The slope Capture3.PNG  from one of the equations seems to give a valid value for V1 (V1 is «1;  is activity coefficient). A known destabiliser may behave as a stabiliser being excluded. Like ethanol, aspirin as cosolute is destabilising and opposed by sucrose.

Open Access Original Research Article

Amelioration of Monosodium Glutamate-induced Testicular Damage and Infertility in Male Rats by Water Melon and Cantaloupe Seeds Extract and Juices

Shimaa El-Masry, Mai Elsayed

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2019/v5i230088

Aims: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is extensively used as food additive and flavor enhancer, there is a growing concern that this may affect the male reproductive system and fertility. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of MSG on fertility and testes of mature male rats and the ameliorative role of water melon and cantaloupe (seeds extract and juices).

Study Design: Thirty-six male Sprague - Dawely rats (150-180 g) were randomly assigned into six groups (n=6). Group (1): orally administered with distilled water. Group (2): orally administered with 60 mg/kg of MSG. Groups (3 and 4): orally administered with 60 mg/kg of MSG + 200 mg/kg of water melon seeds extract and juice respectively. Groups (5 and 6): orally administered with 60 mg/kg of MSG + 200 mg/kg of cantaloupe seeds extract and juice respectively.

Results: Results showed that administration of MSG for 6 weeks caused abnormalities of semen characteristics, increased DNA damage and up-regulation of caspase3 expression in the testes tissue. Also, the levels of plasma sex hormones were decreased and the oxidant-antioxidant status was disturbed, moreover, MSG caused alteration in the histopathological structures of testicular tissue. Administration of seeds extract or juices of water melon and cantaloupe almost corrected the biochemical and histopathological alteration produced by MSG.

Conclusion: This study concluded that water melon and cantaloupe seeds and juice extracts have an ameliorative role against MSG-induced testicular damage and infertility in rats.