Open Access Opinion Article

Understanding Enzymic Reactivity – New Directions and Approaches

Sosale Chandrasekhar

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v7i230133

New approaches towards understanding the reactivity of enzymes–central to chemical biology and a key to comprehending life itself–are discussed herein. The approach overall is based on the idea that structural and reactivity features uniquely characteristic of enzymes–in being absent in normal catalysts–are likely to hold the key to the catalytic powers of enzymes. The quintessentially physical-organic problem is addressed from several angles, both kinetic and phenomenological. (Generally, the Pauling theory of transition state stabilization is adopted as the rigorous basis for understanding enzyme action).

The kinetic approach focuses on the inadequacies of the Michaelis-Menten equation, and proposes an alternative model based on additional substrate binding at high concentrations, which satisfactorily explains experimental observations. The phenomenological approaches focus on the inadequacies of the intramolecularity criterion, thus leading to alternative strategies adopted by nature in the design of these mild yet powerful catalysts, characterized by exquisite selectivity.

Preferential transition state binding at the active site, via both hydrophobic and van der Waals forces, appears to be the major thermodynamic driver of enzymic reactivity. In operational terms, however, multifunctional catalysis–practically unique to the highly ordered enzyme interior–is likely the key to enzymic reactivity. A new concept, ‘strain delocalization’, possibly plays an important role in orchestrating these various effects, and indeed justifies the need for a large proteinic molecule for achieving the enormous rate enhancements generally observed with enzymes.

Thus, this renewed approach to understanding enzymic reactivity departs significantly from currently held views: radically, in abandoning the Michaelis-Menten and intramolecularity models; but also commandeering existing ideas and concepts, although with a shift in emphasis towards transition state effects (including the entirely novel idea of ‘strain delocalization’).The coverage is not exhaustive, but aims to introduce new ideas along with fresh insights into previous works.

Open Access Short communication

Role of Oats in Ameliorating Hepatic and Renal Toxicity Induced by Acute Lead Nanoparticles in Male Rats

Sarah Alashmouni, Afaf El- Atrash, Manar Kandeel, Ehab Tousson

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 38-45
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v7i230137

Aims: Lead is well known environmental pollutant, which can cause toxic effects in multiple organ systems. Lead originates from various industrial and/or household sources, and enters the body through food and fluid intakes, as well as by inhalation. No sufficient information present about the toxic effect of acute lead nanoparticles on kidney and liver. Accordingly, current study was performed to study the therapeutic effects of Oats extract towards the injection of lead nanoparticles (Pb NPs) in rat induced kidney and liver damage by increasing kidney and liver functions, and electrolytes.

Study Design:  A total of 40 male adult albino rats were equally divided into four groups (Control group, Oats group, Pb NPs group as acute toxicity and last group is Pb NPs +Oats).

Results: Current results revealed that; a significant increase in the levels of serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea, creatinine, potassium and chloride ions after injection with Pb NPs as compared to control group. In contrast; a significant decrease in serum albumin, total proteins, and sodium ions in Pb NPs as compared to control groups. Treatment of Pb NPs with Oats improved this change in liver and kidney functions as compared to Pb NPs group.

Conclusion: These findings suggested that; lead nanoparticles injection induced hepatic and renal damage. This shows that the desired dose of Pb NPs can safely be used with Oats in improving hepatic and renal damage in toxic group in young rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activity of a Bidentate NS Schiff Base Containing S-Benzyl Dithiocarbazate and Its Zr(IV), Sn(II) Complexes

Md. Kudrat-E- Zahan, Md. Faruk Hossen, Rausan Zamir, Md. Ali Asraf

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 14-24
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v7i230134

Zr (IV) and Sn (II) complexes were prepared with bidentate ligand, benzyl 2-(3-phenylallylidene) hydrazinecarbodithioate, derived from the condensation of S-benzyldithiocarbazate (SBDTC) with cinnamaldehyde and characterized by microanalysis, molar conductance and magnetic measurements, IR, electronic and ESI-MS studies. It was found that the ligand coordinated to the metal center through azomethine nitrogen and thiol sulfur atoms to form octahedral complexes with both the metal ions. The antimicrobial activities of the ligand and its complexes were investigated against the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and the fungus strain. The metal complexes showed strong activity than the free ligand.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Associated Changes on Haematological Profile of Wistar Rats Fed Curcuma longa (Turmeric) Rhizome Powder

A. V. Iwueke, E. C. Chukwu, J. N. Ejekwummadu, J. A. Nwodu

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 25-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v7i230135

Turmeric spice has a diverse array of biological activities. The present study evaluated body weight and haematological impact of Curcuma longa (Turmeric) in male albino rats using  standard analytical methods. Twenty four healthy male albino rats were used for the study.  Results shows no significant increase in body weight in the first week of dieting while a gradual increase     was observed with increasing weeks of dieting.  Treatment with the powder did not significantly (P ≥ 0.05) alter the levels of hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC) and means corpuscular volume (MCV) of the rats. The result also showed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in the platelets and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (MCHC). However, the white blood cells (WBC) and the packed cell volume (PCV) concentrations were slightly reduced. This study   suggests that adding Curcuma longa (Turmeric) at 50, 100, 200 mg/kg body weight within the duration of study could positively affect the hematological parameters and general well being of the body.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Composition of ‘Aju Mbaise’ Herbal Cocktail

T. A. Nnadiukwu, C. C. Monago- Ighorodje, L. C. Chuku

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 30-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v7i230136

This study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional content of ‘Aju Mbaise’ herbal mixture. The experiment involves the collection of fresh plant samples that make up ‘Aju Mbaise’ cocktail. The study was done in the Research Laboratory of the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The plants samples were collected from Mbaise locality in Imo State, Nigeria, and were identified as Cnestis ferruginea, Xylopia aethiopica, Uvaria chamae, Palisota hirsuta, Scleria sp., Napoleona imperialis, Dialium guineense, Combretum racemosun, and Heterotis rotundifolia respectively. The dietary, mineral, and vitamin compositions were determined accordingly. The proximate, vitamin, and mineral composition of the herbal cocktail were investigated in line with their standard methods of analysis. The proximate analysis revealed that the cocktail extract contains carbohydrate (69.51%), crude protein (10.05%), moisture (8.89%), crude fat (5.17%), fibre (3.745), and ash content (2.65%). The vitamin analysis revealed reasonable concentration of vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, C, D, and K. The mineral evaluation showed high concentration of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, zinc, and iron. This study revealed high nutritional value of ‘Aju Mbaise’ herbal cocktail which is responsible for the plant’s usefulness in the management, treatment, as well as maintenance of good health.