Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Khaya grandifoliola C. DC. Stem Bark on some Disaccharidases Activity in Iron-Deficient Weanling Rats

Emmauel Gboyega Ajiboye, Temidayo Adenike Oladiji

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v7i330138

This study was aimed at investigating the effect of the aqueous extracts of Khaya grandifoliola stem bark on some disaccharidases (lactase and sucrase) in diet-induced anemia in weanling rats. Weanling rats of 21 days old were maintained on iron-deficient diets for four weeks to induce anemia before treatment. A total of 35 weanling rats were used, grouped into five rats per group of iron-deficient diet/distilled water, iron-sufficient diet/distilled water, change of iron-deficient diet after four weeks to iron-sufficient diet, iron-deficient diet/ Standard drug, iron-deficient diet/25 mg/kg body weight of aqueous plant extract, iron-deficient diet/50 mg/kg body weight of aqueous plant extract, and iron-deficient diet/100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous plant extract. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins, anthraquinones and flavonoids. The extract administered orally produced significant increase in the activity of intestinal mucosa sucrase and lactase (P < .05). The change of diet from iron deficient diet to iron sufficient diet increased disaccharidases activities in the intestinal mucosa. However, the aqueous extract of Khaya grandifoliola showed a higher disaccharidases activity when compared to the group of rats that were fed iron-sufficient diet. This study revealed that plant extract administered increased disaccharidases activity in the intestinal mucosa in diet-induced anemic group of weanling rats and thus lends credence to Khaya grandifoliola use in folklore medicine in the management of anemia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional and Phytochemical Content of Cissus populnea (Okoho) Stem Bark

Cosmas Ezekaibeya Achikanu, Onuabuchi Nnenna Ani

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 8-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v7i330139

In this study, the nutritional and chemical contents of the stem bark of Cissus populnea were determined. The analyses were carried out using standard methods. The proximate analyses showed that the sample contains crude protein (1.49±0.02%), crude fibre (22.13±0.62%), crude fat (13.07±0.26%), carbohydrates (56.04±0.78%), ash (4.605±0.23%) and moisture (2.665±0.33%). The vitamin content comprise of vitamin A (2.805±0.03 mg/g), β-Carotene (1.795±0.03 mg/g), vitamin B1 (0.93±0.02 mg/g), vitamin B2 (1.755±0.15 mg/g), vitamin B9 (1.67±0.10 mg/g), vitamin C (2.235±0.17 mg/g), vitamin D (2.02±0.1 mg/g), vitamin E (1.41±0.08 mg/g) and vitamin K (2.425±0.21 mg/g). The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids (1.551 ±0.03 mg/g), flavonoids (0.761±0.10 mg/g), saponins (2.208±0.07 mg/g), steroids (1.452±0.04 mg/g), tannins (1.987±0.01 mg/g), terpenoids (1.530±0.09 mg/g) and phenols (0.447±0.06 mg/g). Glycoside was not detected. The results indicate that the stem bark of Cissus populnea is a good source of food nutrients and phytochemicals. These phytochemicals may be responsible for the medicinal properties of the plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Potentials of Methanol Extract of Duranta erecta Leaves

Christopher Chidiebere Ugwu, Chioma Assumpta Anosike

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 16-26
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v7i330140

Plant extracts that have antioxidant activities show promising effect in the management of many diseases initiated by oxidative stress. The present study evaluates the phytochemical composition and in vitro antioxidant potentials of methanol extract of Duranta erecta leaves. The extract was subjected to phytochemical screening, DPPH inhibition, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), nitric oxide determination, antioxidant vitamins and minerals composition analysis. All analyses were carried out using standard biochemical methods. The phytochemical evaluation of the plant extract showed the presence of flavonoids (24.20 ± 0.14 mg QE/g), Alkaloids (15.87 ± 1.71 mg/g), total phenol (12.73 ± 0.61 mg GAE/g), tannins (9.24 ± 0.03 mg TAE/g), terpenoids (8.90 ± 0.96 mg/g), steroids (2.65 ± 0.55 mg/g) and saponins (5.55 ± 0.76 mg/g). The in vitro antioxidant determination showed that the extract had antioxidant properties in a concentration dependent manner. The antioxidant property of the sample was compared to that of ascorbic acid (for DPPH and nitric oxide determination) and gallic acid (for FRAP) as standards. The antioxidant mineral composition of the extract revealed the presence of zinc (1.82 ± 0.03 mg/100g) and selenium (0.59 ± 0.04 mg/100g). The antioxidant vitamins composition of the extract showed moderate concentrations of vitamin C (0.35 ± 0.01 mg/100 g) and vitamin E (0.68 ± 0.07 mg/100g). The result of this study revealed that methanol extract of Duranta erecta leaves could be a good source of antioxidants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histopathological Evaluation of the Methanol Extract of Napoleonae imperialis Leaves against Methotrexate-Induced Renal Damage in Albino Rats

O. J. Mba, C. E. Odo, P. C. Chikezie, U. I. Edward

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 27-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v7i330141

Aim: This study was aimed at investigating the effect of methanol extract of Napoleonae imperialis leaves against methotrexate renal histology in albino rats.

Methodology: Thirty (30) male albino rats of mean weight 130 g were used for this study. The animals for the study were grouped into five (5) of six (6) rats each. Group A received feed and water only and Group B was induced with methotrexate without treatment. Groups (C and D) were orally given 250 mg and 500 mg/kg b.wt of leaves extract, and group E was orally given the extract only (500 mg/kg b.wt) respectively for 28 days. All the rats used in this study were initially subjected to renal damage using 0.5 ml/kg of methotrexate except the normal control group. The rats were sacrificed after 28 days, and the kidney were carefully dissected from the abdominal region. They were fixed in normal saline for 72 hours and sliced into a thickness of 2.1mm samples of and processed for histopathological examination.

Results: The photomicrographs result showed that in group A, (normal control group) evenly distributed glomeruli of smaller size, with normal mesangial cellularity. In group B, (positive control group) there is a significant pathology and mild interstitial inflammation. In groups (C and D) (tests group that received 250 and 500 mg/kg b.wt of the extract) there is no significant pathology, in group E, there is no significant pathology.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the leaves extract may have exerted nephroprotective effects in albino rats, and may also be used pharmacologically in the management of organ toxicity.

Open Access Review Article

A Review: Honey and Its Nutritional Composition

Sabia Hasam, Deana Qarizada, Muzhda Azizi

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 34-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2020/v7i330142

Honey is one of the historical natural products produced by honey bees. Humans used it as medicine and protection against some infectious diseases, a honey quale is dependent in its classification of the honey bee. The most famous accomplished honey bees in the world are Africanized honey bee (Apis mellıfera .l), Western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera), Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana),  Philippine honey bee (Apis nigrocincta), Koschevnikovs honey bee (A. koschevnikovi), Giant Honeybees (Apis dorsata), Dwarf Honeybees (Apis andreniformis). This study collected the health effect, quality and usage of honey in several industries; also argue about the nutritious value of honey that the most important parts are protein, carbohydrates, vitamin, and minerals.

Honey is not only a nutrient it also plays a major role in many other products, uses of honey in cosmetics as a protective and softener of skin, it is used up to 22% in paste masks and mud packs (which are considered rinse-off formulations). Uses of honey in Ayurveda for prevention of irritation, cough, healthy teeth, gums, and boons. 

Production of honey has been compared in 2013 to 2018, in 2013 the world production of honey was 1,664 thousand tones with an increase of 1/3 in just two decades. China, where manufacturing amounted to 466.3 thousand tons, i.e. approximately 29% of the global volume of output, these are showing that China was the biggest producer of honey in the world but it gets a decrease in 2018 as well as Brazil, America, Russia, Ethiopia, and Iran. And it increases in Turkey, Argentine, India, Mexico, and Poland.