Open Access Minireview Article

Plant Metabolomics: An Overview

Ramesh Londonkar, M. M. Kesaralikar

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 56-60
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i230179

The term metabolomics was coined by Oliver and his group in 1998. It is a study of biochemical profile and regulation of functions in whole organism by analyzing a metabolite pool present in organism. Researchers believe that more than 400,000 plant species exist worldwide. Total number of metabolites in the plant kingdom are about 2,00,000 to 10,00,000. With the availability of highly sensitive and selective analytical techniques, metabolic changes in plant systems can be followed in a comprehensive way. This technology is useful in assessing gene function and relationships to metabolites. The nutritional values of food and concentration of pharmaceuticals in plants can be improved by using metabolomics study and its functional genomic strategies. Metabolomics analysis is comparatively fast, cheaper and reliable, but simultaneous identification of all metabolites in a crop plant remains a challenge.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alstonia boonei Leaf Mitigated Deleterious Effects of Experimental Type-II-Diabetes-Mellitus against Pancreatic and Neurocognitive Functions

Violet Olubunmi Falusi, Sunday Oluwayomi, Bamidele Imoukhuede, Gideon Oludare Oladipo

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 19-35
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i230176

The search for prompt, less toxic and economically affordable medical therapy has facilitated the increased investigation into the therapeutic potentials and applications of plants samples against common tropical ailments. This study was designed to investigate the reported link between experimental type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and neurocognitive decline and the justification for the use Alstonia boonei leaf in similar treatments. Experimental T2DM were treated with 100, 1000 and 1600 mg/kg BWT of the Alstonia boonei leaf and glibenclamide (100 mg/kg BWT). Biochemical analyses were used to determine effects on the pancreatic and neuronal indices of tissues functions; oxidative stress; excitation; and inflammation; blood glucose and insulin concentrations. The study revealed that T2DM and Alstonia boonei leaf affected the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase which is the regulating enzyme for the biosynthesis of dopamine. The oxidative and inflammatory stress exacerbated by T2DM was mitigated by a significant reduction of TNF-α and an increase of GSH, NP-SH, GPx, SOD and GST levels. Alstonia boonei leaf reversed the insulin resistance by the cells, with effective transduction of insulin signal and a corresponding reduction of circulating glucose. Alstonia boonei leaf demonstrated hypoglycaemic effect, and mitigated the neurodegeneration that ensued from the diabetic induction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determining Relative Percentage Change as a New Metrics in Scaling and Root Planning Therapy Outcome in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

Abdul Samad Aziz, Rahul Kale, Madhav Govind Kalekar, Adinath Narayan Suryakar

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 36-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i230177

Aims: To quantify the relative percentage change in the patients with periodontitis after employing the scaling and root planning (SRP) therapy and determine the association in the improvements in clinical parameters of biochemical oxidative stress (OS) markers, total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and malondialdehyde (MDA).

Study Design: In this cross sectional study, two groups of patients were clinically evaluated and their biochemical parameters were quantified and statistically compared.

Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Biochemistry and Periodontology, M. A. Rangoonwala Dental College, Pune and Department of Biochemistry, Grant Govt. Medical College, Mumbai. The study was carried out between May 2010 and July 2012.

Methodology: Individuals with generalized chronic periodontitis (n = 86; CAL ≥ 3mm American Academy of Periodontology 1999 criteria) were clinically (Gingival index, plaque index, probing depth, clinical attachment level) and biochemically (TAOC, MDA) evaluated. The SRP therapy was performed and a follow-up was done after 3 months. The mean values of clinical and biochemical study parameters and their relative percentage change were evaluated thoroughly.

Results: Individuals with chronic periodontitis showed improved clinical and biochemical oxidative stress (OS) markers. After the SRP therapy, significant improvement (p ˂ 0.05) was found in both clinical and biochemical parameters from their corresponding pre-treatment values.

The relative percentage change in clinical parameters ranged between 14.5% to 38.7%, and those of TAOC and MDA were -10.3% and 34.71% respectively. Further, the relative % change in TAOC and MDA showed significant correlation (p ˂ 0.05) to those of PI, PD, and CAL.

Conclusion: On conducting the SRP therapy, improvement in clinical parameters and biochemical OS parameters is noticed in the individuals with periodontitis. The relative percentage change can be used as a tool for therapy outcome assessment.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo and In vitro Antioxidant Activities of Aqueous and Ethanol Stem Bark Extracts of Vitex doniana on Doxorubicin-induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

Mohammed Aliyu Sulaiman, Daniel Dahiru, Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Ahmed Ibrahim Hayatu

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 44-55
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i230178

Background: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis, muscular dystrophy, aging and other associated diseases. Vitex doniana is used in Adamawa, northern Nigeria to treat oxidative stress associated diseases. However, the antioxidative effects of the plant have not been scientifically examined in oxidative stress experimental animal models. The aim of this study is to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of aqueous and ethanol stem bark extracts of Vitex doniana in oxidative stress model of rats.

Methods: The study used 35 adult albino rats weighing 175 ± 25 g, of which 30 were induced with oxidative stress by intraperitoneal injection of doxorubicin (10 mg/kg) for three consecutive days. Animals were treated by oral administration of silymarin (100 mg/kg) and Vitex doniana aqueous or ethanol extract (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days before they were sacrificed on the 15th day and blood was analyzed for biochemical indices of oxidative stress.

Results: The results of the phytochemistry showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, phenols, saponins, terpenoids, glycosides: and total flavonoids (52.70 ± 1.60 mg/ml and 75.40 ± 0.80 mg/ml), total phenols (21.45 ± 1.54 mg/ml and 26.50 ± 1.22 mg/ml) for aqueous and ethanol stem bark extracts respectively. The extracts scavenged DPPH radical, reduced Fe3+ and inhibited lipid peroxidation. Doxorubicin significantly (p<0.05) lowered the levels of SOD, CAT, GR and TAS and significantly (p<0.05) but, increased the level of LPO. Oral treatment with Vitex doniana extracts significantly (p<0.05) increased the activities of CAT, GR, SOD and TAS while LPO was significantly (p<0.05) lowered. Vitex doniana stem bark extracts significantly (p<0.05) improved the biochemical derangements observed in the induced untreated animals in comparable manner to that of Silymarin.

Conclusion: The present study provides the scientific rationale for the use of Vitex doniana stem bark in traditional medicine and has a viable antioxidative capacity both in vitro and in vivo.

Open Access Review Article

Recent Studies on the Therapeutic and Prophylactic Effect of Some Agents on Experimental Induced Parkinson Disease Models Review

I. M. Hassan, A. M. Abdullahi

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i230175

Neurodegeneration include disease of the central nervous system (CNS) such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). The sign of this disease include destruction of dopaminergic neuronal cells. Main causes of this disease are unknown, but several studies reported polygenic causes. These include free radicals, malfunction of mitochondria, protein oxidation and DNA denaturation. Several reports implicated the involvement of oxygen species and stresses cause by over accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the contribution to the cascade that resulted in diminishing of dopamine cells destruction in this disease. Generally, natural defensive substances such as bio-cartelized (proteineous and non proteineous) from natural or synthetic sources played a unique role in protecting the susceptible neuronal cells from the adverse effects of the reactive oxygen species. In most cases antioxidant enzyme production by the body system diminished with advance age. Hence, treatment with antioxidant potential agent or administration of antioxidant substance with the common drugs used in the treatment of PD may yield positive result in protecting neurons from degenerative changes caused by reactive oxygen species. Recent studies on the therapeutic and prophylactic effect of some agents on experimental induced PD summarized in this review paper.