Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Potential of Lycopene Enriched Tomato Extract against Dexamethasone Induced Hepatic and Renal Damage in Mice

A. Koul, J. Kaur, N. A. Chugh

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i330180

Aim: The present study was carried out to determine the protective potential of Lycopene enriched tomato extract (LycT) against hepatic and renal damage caused in mice by dexamethasone administration.

Study Design: Male LACA mice were randomly divided into four treatment groups (n=6-7 animals per group) depending upon the treatment they received. Group I (control) animals served as control and were orally administered with olive oil (vehicle) thrice a week for five weeks. Group II (DEX) animals were intraperitoneallly (i.p.) administered with dexamethasone at a dose of 5 mg/kg b.w. on alternate days for three weeks. Group III (LycT) animals were orally (p.o.) administered with LycT at a dose of 5 mg/kg b.w. on alternate days for five weeks. Group IV (LycT+DEX) animals were co-administered with LycT (p.o.) and dexamethasone (i.p.) according to the above mentioned dose regimen

Results: Dexamethasone caused hepatic and renal damage as evident from disturbed histoarchitecture, deranged levels of organ function markers (alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, total and direct bilirubin, urea, creatinine) and enhanced level of cell damage (lactate dehydrogenase) and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) markers. Increased blood glucose level, decreased hepatic glycogen level along with inhibited activities of enzymes involved in glycolysis (hexokinase, phosphoglucoisomerase) indicated altered glucose metabolism in DEX group. The mitigation in histoarchitectural alterations, cell damage and oxidative stress markers, improved levels of organ function markers, blood glucose level along with ramped up antioxidant defense system indicated the protective potential of LycT against dexamethasone induced ill effects.

Conclusions: These results point towards beneficial effects of LycT against dexamethasone induced damage to hepatic and renal tissues in mice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study the Protective Effect of Ginger against the Toxicity of Dimethoate on Hormones in Rabbits

Sara M. Elgazwi, Fayrouz A. Khaled, Manal F. Alsanous

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 24-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i330181

Organophosphorus insecticides have been widely classified as a health dangerous and high toxicity compounds due to their widespread use and release into the environment. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been used as a medicinal plant since antiquity and is known to play diverse biological roles including anti oxidation, anti-inflammation, hyperlipidemia, anti-carcinogenesis, anti-nausea, anti-thrombosis, and antibacterial process. The purpose of these experiments was to study decreasing the toxicity effect of Dimethoate by ginger. All animals in this study were assigned to one of four treatment groups: 0 mg ginger and 0 mg dimethoate /kg BW (control); 100 mg ginger/kg BW; 43.2 mg dimethoate /kg BW; and 43.2 mg dimethoate plus 100 mg ginger/kg BW. Rabbits were orally managed the particular measurements each other day for 12 weeks. Results indicated that treatment with ginger alone caused significant (P<0.05) increase in body weight (BW) and relative weight of testes compared to control animals. Whereas the rabbits treated with dimethoate showed significant (P<0.05) decrease in BW and relative weight of testes compared with control. Results showed that treatment with DM caused significant (P<0.05) decrease activity of testosterone, T3 and T4. While, increase the levels of FSH and LH in plasma. Ginger caused significant (P<0.05) increase in the activity of testosterone, T3 and T4 in plasma compared to control. While, decrease the levels of FSH and LH in plasma. The presence of ginger with DM caused significant (P<0.05) decrease in the reduction of T3 and T4, while caused an improvement in the levels of testosterone as compared to control and the presence of ginger with DM caused increase in the levels of FSH and LH as compared to control, and this means that ginger counteracted the toxic effects of DM.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicological Evaluation and Possible Reversal of Diabetic Toxicological Complications by PHF5 an Antidiabetic Herbal Formula in Wistar Albino Rats

Egba Simeon Ikechukwu, N. Okafor Polycarp, E. Mbah Patricia, C. Ikechukwu Gavin, C. Omeoga Humphrey, W. Eze Chukwuka

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 34-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i330182

Aim: Medicinal potentials of herbs can be amplified greatly through synergism in a poly-herbal formulations. Toxic propensities of a plant can be masked out in poly-herbal preparations thus enhancing effectiveness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicological effect and toxicity ameliorating properties of a poly-herbal formula (PHF5) prepared in a particular ratio from the leaves of Ocimmum gratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Gongronema latifolium, Gnetum africanum and Aloe barbadensis against alloxan-induced diabetic male rats.

Methods: Thirty-six (36) Wistar rats divided into 6 groups with 6 animals per group were used for this study. Group 1 served as normal control animals; group 2 had the diabetic rats treated with PHF5 (75 mg/kg bw); group 3, diabetic rats treated with PHF5 (150 mg/kg bw); group 4, diabetic rats treated with PHF5 (300 mg/kg bw); group 5, diabetic rats not given any intervention, group 6 diabetic animals treated with Glibenclamide (5 mg/kgbw). The induction of diabetes was done intraperitoneally using alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg bw). Administration of PHF5 was done orally for five weeks.

Results: Acute toxicity studies of PHF5 did not show any toxic symptoms in animals that received the PHF5 at up to 5000 mg/kg bw dose. The elevated liver (TP, AST, ALT and ALP) and kidney (BUN and Creatnine) markers in the diabetic animals were lowered significantly in the PHF5-treated animals.

Conclusion: The findings of this study suggests that PHF5 possess protective properties against hepatotoxicity and diabetic nephropathy and that the extract is quite safe for consumption

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Stereospermum kunthianum on Carbon Tetrachloride - Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Mahmoud Suleiman Jada, Mohammed Aliyu Sulaiman, Muktar Abdulmalik

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 44-52
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i330183

Aim: This study is aimed at evaluating the effects of the aqueous stem bark extract of Stereospermum kunthianum on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Methodology: Analysis of qualitative phytochemical components and antioxidant activity were carried out. Experimental rats were randomly divided into six groups of five rats each. Group 1: served as the normal control group. Group 2: was administered with CCl4 only at a dose of 3 ml/kg b.wt by single intraperitoneal administration. Group 3: served as the standard control group.   Group 4: was administered with 200 mg/kg b.wt of the aqueous stem bark extract + CCl4. Group 5: was administered with 400 mg/kg b.wt of the aqueous stem bark extract + CCl4. Group 6: was administered with 600 mg/kg b.wt of the aqueous stem bark extract+ CCl4.

Results: The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonoid, phenols, saponins, and terpenoid while tannins and alkaloids were absent. The antioxidant activity showed that the extract significantly (P<0.05) inhibits Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS), giving high activity as the concentration of the extract increases. The elevated levels of ALT and AST coupled with Conjugated bilirubin, Total bilirubin, and total protein caused by CCl4 administration were all reduced significantly (P<0.05) by the extract in dose dependent manner.

Conclusion: These findings demonstrated that stem bark extract of Stereospernmum kunthianum could be an alternative medication for liver injury.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-hyperglycemic and Anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Hydroethanol Leaf and Stem Extracts of Vitex doniana in Diabetic Rats

Francis O. Atanu, Raphael E. Jegede, Daniel O. Apeh, Mohammed S. Suleiman

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 53-59
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i330184

Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of hydroethanolic leaf and stem extracts of Vitex doniana on alloxan induced diabetes in rats was evaluated. Thirty (30) male rats were assigned to five (5) groups of six (6) rats each as follows: Group I served as normal control rats and were fed with standard feed and water ad libitum, Group II was induced with diabetes by single intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared alloxan [150 mg/kg body weight (BW)] to overnight fasted rats but received no treatment, Group III-V were induced with alloxan and treated with 5 mg/kg BW standard drug glibenclamide, 300 mg/kg BW leaf extract and 300 mg/kg BW stem extract of Vitex doniana respectively.  The results revealed that the leaf and stem extracts had anti-hyperglycemic activity similar to glibenclamide. Analysis of lipid profile showed that whereas alloxan induced increase in the concentration of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and triglycerides, hydroethanolic leaf and stem extracts caused a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the these biomarkers compared to the control. The outcome of this study portrayed that hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia caused by the alloxan can be mitigated by administration of extracts of Vitex doniana.