Open Access Original Research Article

Extraction and Comparative Characterization of Oils from Edible Seeds of Glycine max and Sesamum indicum

Victor Henry Azubuike Enemor, Ejike Celestine Orji, Uchechukwu Chibuzo Ogbodo, Ogechukwu Frances Nworji, Chinaza Lucy Ibeneme

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i430185

Aim: The incidence of heart-related disease conditions due to consumption of cholesterol containing oils and the increasing global demand for oil for domestic and industrial purposes have necessitated the need for scientific evaluation of other neglected indigenous plants for potential quality oil yield. This study thus aimed at extracting and comparing physicochemical and nutritional properties of seed oils from Glycine max and Sesamum indicum with a view to diversifying alternative sources of oil to meet teeming industrial and health needs and for food security.

Methodology: Solvent extraction method was employed to extract oil from seed samples which were further subjected to estimation of physicochemical indices such as free fatty acid, saponification value, iodine value, peroxide value, specific gravity, refractive index, density, pH, melting temperature and viscosity according to methods described by using titration method.

Results: Findings indicated higher saponification (412.33 mgKOH/mg), acid (2.99 mgKOH/g), free fatty acid (1.49 mgKOH/g), viscosity (0.13 Pas) and melting point (5.66 oC) values for sesame seed oil than for soybean seed oil. However, soybean seed oil showed higher density (0.837 g/ml), specific gravity (0.842 Kg/m3), pH (6.21), iodine (47.25 wij’s or g/iodine/g) and peroxide (40.80 mEq/Kg) indices than that obtained for sesame seed oil though mean values were not significantly different.

Conclusion: From observed measured parameters, sesame seed may be suitable for industrial purposes such as the production of soap and paint owing to its high saponification, free fatty acid, viscosity and melting point values while soybean seed oil may be excellent source for domestic and nutritional consumption in addition to industrial use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioactive Composition and Acute Oral Toxicity Studies on Persea Americana Seed Ethyl Acetate Fraction

E. S. Asiwe, C. U. Igwe, K. M. E. Iheanacho, I. O. Onyeocha, V. A. Onwuliri

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i430186

Aims: Persea americana (P. americana) dubbed ‘green gold’ is a highly sought after fruit today, with insatiable export market. Different parts of avocadoes have been consumed both for nutritional and health benefits across regions of the world. Therefore, this study investigates the bioactive composition of P. americana seed ethyl acetate fraction and acute toxicological effects.

Place and duration of study: Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; between May 2019 and October, 2019.

Methodology: Quantitative phytochemical composition was assessed using gas chromatography fitted with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and acute toxicity determined using standard method.

Results: Result of quantitative phytochemical composition of P. americana seed fraction shows a rich presence of phytochemicals such as epicatechin, kaempferol, proanthocyanin, rutin, resveratrol, ribalinidine, naringin, spartein, quinine, flavan-3-ol, anthocyanin, lunamarin, sapogenin, flavonones, flavones. The quantitative phytochemical composition of P. americana seed shows that among other phytochemicals, the seed is relatively rich in anthocyanin, quinine, epicatechin, tannin and proanthocyanin with concentrations of 69.39 ± 8.33 µg/g, 22.16 ±1.77 µg/g, 21.88 ± 2.53 µg/g, 19.86 ± 1.19 µg/g and 10.98 ± 0.55 µg/g respectively. The acute toxicity studies on the seed reveal that the ethyl acetate fraction of P. americana seed did not elicit any lethal signs of morbidity and mortality at doses up to 5000mg/Kgb.wt. and are therefore considered generally safe.

Conclusion: P. americana seed ethyl acetate fraction contains essential phytochemicals with useful phyto-medicinal and nutraceutical benefits. The implications of these findings are further discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Profile, Antioxidant Activity of Leaf of Hoslundia opposita Vahl and Docking of its Phytochemical Components with Uropathogenic Strain F11(ID:3NRP) and NFeoB from Escherichia coli BL21(ID:5FH9)

T. I. Edewor, A. F. Ogundola, A. O. Akintola, A. J. Adepoju, G. J. Ibikunle, A. J. Mmuo, B. Semire, S. O. Owa

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 18-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i430187

Hoslundia opposita Vahl is a multi-purpose medicinal plant used traditionally to treat gonorrhea, cystitis, cough, fever, snake bites, convulsion in many parts of Africa. The objectives of this research are to evaluate the phytochemical profile, antioxidant activity of the leaves of Hoslundia opposita Vahl and to dock its phytochemical components with uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain F11(ID:3NRP) and NFeoB from Escherichia coli BL21(ID:5FH9). Harborne’s method was used for the identification of the class of phytochemicals while GC-MS was used to identify the type of phytochemicals. Folin-Ciocalteau method was used to determine the total phenolic content while aluminum colorimetric assay was used to estimate the total flavonoid content. 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. The molecular docking simulation method was used to investigate the interactions of the phytochemicals with the Escherichia coli receptors. In the phytochemical studies, flavonoids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and saponins were identified to be present in the methanolic leaf extract while steroids, alkaloids and anthraquinones were absent. The GC-MS analysis of the methanolic extract revealed presence of 17 compounds out of which 14 were identified. The compounds with appreciable quantity in the leaf extract were 1, 2, 3-benzetriol (38.11%), n-hexadacanoic acid (13.52%) and catechol (9.98%). Assessment of the antioxidant activity using DPPH gave a scavenging activity of 79.86% at 500ug/ml compared with ascorbic acid having a scavenging activity of 90.85% at the same concentration. Evaluation of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 500 ug/ml gave the values of 262.54 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract and 6.24 mg quercetin equivalent/g extract respectively compared with gallic acid and quercetin with maximum concentrations of 385.12 and 12.46 respectively. This shows that the extract has significant antioxidant activity and can be explored as a valuable source of natural antioxidants. GC-MS analysis of the methanolic extract of Hoslundia opposita showed the presence of trans-3-(trifluoromethyl)cinnamic acid, octadecyl ester which was active against Escherichia coli. Docking results with 3NRP and 5FH9 showed binding affinities of -6.1, -6.6, 7.2and -7.0,7.4, 8.5 kJ/mol with the commercial drugs : ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tetracycline respectively while that of trans 3-(trifluoromethyl)cinnamic acid, octadecyl ester identified in the leaves were 5.6 and 5.9 kJ/mol.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Proximate Analysis, Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Activity and Mineral Composition of Momordica charantia and Ocimum gratissimum Leaf Powder

O. D. Oloruntola, S. O. Ayodele, O. P. A. Olowu, A. B. Falowo, S. A. Adeyeye, I. S. Omoniyi, C. O. Osowe

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 30-39
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i430188

Aim: This study aims to evaluate and characterise the Momordica charantia and Ocimum gratissimum leaf powder.

Methodology: The quantitative analyses for proximate, phytochemicals, minerals, and antioxidant activities of Momordica charantia and Ocimum gratissimum leaf powder were carried out using standard procedures.

Results: The result of the proximate analysis showed that both plants contain an appreciable amount of moisture, ash, crude fibre, crude fat, crude protein and nitrogen-free extract content,  with M. charantia leaf powder having higher moisture (5.49 ± 0.03%) content than O. gratissimum leaf powder (5.02 ± 0.01%) (P < 0.05).  Ocimum gratissimum had higher crude fibre content (25.03 ± 0.25%) than M.  charantia leaf powder (20.86 ± 0.12%) (P < 0.05).  The protein, ash, crude fat and nitrogen-free extract contents were not significantly different (p> 0.05) between the two leaf powders. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannin, flavonoid, phenol, alkaloids, saponin and phytate. Except for alkaloid content, M. charantia leaf powder had higher tannins (1.20±0.02 mg/g), flavonoids (225.64±14.61 mg/g), phenol (21.04±0.57 mg/g), saponins (57.36±0.08 mg/g) and phytate (7.79±0.25 mg/g) content compared to O. gratissimum leaf powder. The antioxidant activity of the plants showed that M. charantia leaf powder possessed higher DPPH scavenging free radical activity than that of O. gratissimum leaf powder. The mineral constituents revealed that both plants contain a significant amount of zinc, calcium, iron and phosphorus, with M. charantia leaf powder having higher zinc and calcium concentration than O. gratissimum leaf powder (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this study shows that the leaf of M. charantia and O. gratissimum plants are rich sources of nutrients and phytochemicals and can be used as natural feed additives in animal nutrition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Constituents of Carrot (Daucus carota) Fruit Juice and its Hepatoprotective Property in CCl4-Induced Liver Cirrhotic Rats

Asiat Na’Allah, Mutiu Adewunmi Alabi, Fatai A. Kareem, Ayodeji O. Obatoye, Shukuriyya Attahir, Rahma Umar

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 40-55
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i430189

Aim: This study evaluated the phytochemical constituents of Carrot fruit juice (CFJ) and its hepatoprotective property in CCl4-induced liver cirrhotic rats.

Study Design: Sixty male rats of weight ranging from 150-180 g were completely randomized into six groups. All rats were administered 0.5 ml/kg CCl4 subcutaneously thrice weekly except groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 while rats in groups 3 and 6 and groups 4 and 5 orally received 2.5 and 5.0 ml/kg of CFJ on daily basis for 12 weeks.

Results: The preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening of extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrate, saponin, phenolic compound and tannins. The extract treated groups significantly revealed an increase in liver cirrhotic emaciated body weight and reduction in the liver index, a reversal of liver marker enzymes activities, an increase in enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants with a decrease in malondialdehyde level reduction in C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, alpha-fetoprotein, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Exposure of animal to CCl4 induces oxidative stress, increases the generation of reactive oxygen species and myeloperoxidase activity, and reduces cell viability but was reversed by the CFJ.

Conclusion: The result showed that CFJ is a promising therapeutic option for treating liver failure.