Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Survey and In vitro Antisickling Effect of Some Selected Medicinal Plants

Ibrahim Sani, Angela Nnenna Ukwuani-Kwaja, Maimuna Haruna

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i130190

Background: Sickle cell disease is a genetic disorder in which an individual inherits the sickle cell allele from both parents. The modern disease modifying therapies are quite expensive and often come with side effects, hence, there is need to search for natural alternatives from medicinal plants. This research was aimed at evaluating the antisickling effects of some selected medicinal plants.

Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical survey was conducted on the medicinal plants used in Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria for the treatment/management of sickle cell disease.  Five (5) most cited plants; Carica papaya leaf, Prosopis africana stem-bark, Guiera senegalensis leaf, Syzygium aromaticum seed and Boswellia dalzielli stem bark were selected and their methanol extracts were subjected to in vitro antisickling activity using sodium metabisulphite. Phytochemical screening on the most active plant extracts was conducted using standard methods.

Results: The plant extracts and their combinations exhibited antisickling activities with varying degrees of efficacy. C. papaya leaf extract, P. africana stem bark extract and G. senegalensis leaf extract were the most potent that caused reduction in the percentage sickling to 3.87±2.73, 8.38±1.06 and 28.35±2.07% respectively. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids and Tannins in all the three (3) plant extracts. Anthraquinones and glycosides were present only C. papaya and G. senegalensis leaf extracts, while Flavonoids and Saponins were only present in G. senegalensis leaf extract and P. africana stem bark extracts. Phenols were present in C. papaya leaf extract and P. africana stem bark extracts, while phlobatannins was only in C. papaya leaf extract.

Conclusion: The medicinal plant extracts were able to reduce the percentage of sickled cells. This may be due to the presence of some of the phytochemicals. Hence, these medicinal plants may be used as alternative to hydroxyurea in ameliorating the sickling in human HbS containing RBCs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Regeneration of Pancreas Β-Cells in Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Rats Treated with Aqueous Seed Extract of Syzygium aromaticum: A Preliminary Study

Azeemat T. Abdulazeez, Kehinde H. Bello, Mutiu A. Alabi, Fatai A. Kareem, Janet F. Adeegbe

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 15-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i130191

Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the preventive/curative effect of aqueous seed extract Syzygium aromaticum in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

Study Design: Twenty Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first group served as a control (received 1 ml of normal saline). The second group served as Diabetic control (received 1 ml of normal saline). The third group served as test 1 (pre-treated with 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of aqueous Syzygium aromaticum seeds extract for seven days prior to diabetic induction and post-treated with aqueous seeds extract of Syzygium aromaticum after diabetic induction) and the fourth group served as test 2 (post-treated with 500 mg/kg b.w. of aqueous seed extract of Syzygium aromaticum after diabetic induction) in a daily oral dose for 14 days.

Results: Treatment of rats with aqueous seed extract of Syzygium aromaticum in a daily dose of 500 mg/kg significantly mitigates the induced changes in the glucose and lipid profile parameters. Histopathological examination of the pancreas showed the destruction of β-cells in the diabetic control group and recovery of damaged tissues when treated with 500 mg/kg b.w. of aqueous seeds extract of Syzygium aromaticum.

Conclusion: The present study suggests that aqueous seed extract S. aromaticum seeds extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight brings about regeneration of the B-cells of the pancreas and significant beneficial effects in various physiological parameters in alloxan-induced diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Analysis and Elemental Composition of Terminalia Catappa Fruit

Idris M. Omenesa, Suleiman A. Itopa, Jwan’an L. Emmanuel, Abdulsalaam O. Abdulazeez, Sambo Ponfa

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 22-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i130192

Introduction: Terminalia catappa is a large tropical tree in the lead wood tree family, combretacea. This plant is regarded as a medicinal plant and can be used in the treatment of cough, syphilis, hydropsy, rheumatism, and other infections.

Aim: This study assessed the nutritional value of Terminalia catappa and the composition of elements present in the plant fruit.

Methods: Proximate analysis was carried out according to food chemistry analytical methods and elements were estimated by atomic absorption and flame spectroscopy respectively.

Results: Proximate analysis showed that the fruits contained 81.96% moisture content, 1.47% ash, 0.04% crude fat, 1.11% crude protein, 14.05% carbohydrate, and 1.41% crude fibre. The fruits were found to be good sources of minerals. Sodium (2.1±0.01 mg/100 g), potassium (72.5±1.03 mg/100 g), calcium (320±2.00mg/100g), magnesium (20±2.65 mg/100 g), iron (20±3.0 mg/100 g), manganese (2±0.36 mg/100 g), and zinc (8±1.25 mg/100 g).

Conclusion: The results revealed the presence of nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, crude fats, crude fibre, moisture, and ash in small amounts. And elements analysis shows that sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, and zinc are in appreciable amount. These constituents are therefore responsible for the biochemical values of Terminalia catappa fruits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Composition and Phytochemical Constituents of Matured Carica papaya Seed Extracts

M. A. Kanadi, R. Yila, M. P. Ibrahim, A. I. Yaradua, A. Nasir

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 28-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i130193

Aim: To investigate the proximate composition and phytochemical constituents of matured Carica papaya seed.

Study Design: Proximate composition was determined on Carica papaya seed powder while extracts for phytochemical analysis were obtained, in turn using five different solvents of varying polarity, namely n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. The study was carried out between March- April, 2019.

Results: The proximate composition of matured Carica papaya seed showed it contained crude fat (27.72%), carbohydrate (23.34%), crude fibre (21.25%), ash (10.25%), crude protein (9.65%) and moisture (7.34%). Qualitative phytochemical screening of Carica papaya seed extracts detected major phytochemicals except anthraquinones and quantitative analyses of these phytochemicals in all the five extracts showed that flavonoids was the most abundant phytochemical with 38.68%, 35.85%, 36.76%, 34.04% and 23.50% for methanol, aqueous, chloroform, n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions respectively while tannins was the least abundant phytochemical with 0.03% for methanol extract, 0.04% for n-hexane extract, 0.09% for aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts, and 0.14% for the chloroform extract.

Conclusion: Seeds of matured Carica papaya contain major nutrients that may be useful in nutrition. The presence of phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins in considerable quantities explained the medicinal activity of the plant material as encountered in its therapeutic uses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Potentials, Phytochemical Profiles and Ameliorating Effects of Senna siamea Extract on Arsenic-Induced Hepato-Renal Damage

Abiodun Olusoji Owoade, Abdullahi Alausa, Adewale Adetutu, Akinade William Owoade, Olufemi Alamu Alamu, Olatundun Oludairo

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 34-52
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i130194

This study evaluated the in- vitro antioxidant, phytochemical constituents and hepato-renal protective efficacy of Senna siamea methanolic extract in arsenic-induced oxidative stress. The results of this study show that S. siamea has strong antioxidant potentials against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’azinobis (3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acids) (ABTS) radicals. The extract scavenges nitric oxide radicals and has strong ferric reducing power. It also inhibited the induction of lipid peroxidation and α-amylase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Administration of arsenic to rats induced a significant increase in the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, urea, creatinine, and triglycerides in the plasma, while it decreased superoxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase activities in the liver and kidney. It also significantly reduced the levels of white blood cells, red blood cells, platelet and lymphocytes in the blood. However, rats pretreated with S. siamea extract before arsenic administration significantly reversed all these arsenic-induced changes. Histological observations showed varying degrees of liver damage in the arsenic group that was un­treated, while the pre-treatment with S. siamea extract significantly improved the general histoarchitecture of the liver. The phytochemical constituents of the extract were determined, the gas-chromatography analysis revealed the possible presence of oxalic acid, barakol, kaempferol, betulin while total phenolics content, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre are in considerable amount in the plant This study demonstrated that S. siamea extract has antioxidant potentials and ameliorates arsenic-induced hepato-renal toxicity, the effectiveness of S. siamea as a medicinal plant could be due to the presence of various phenolics and antioxidant compounds in the plant.