Open Access Original Research Article

Bisphenol a Exposure Causes Increased Oxidation of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Its Abduct in Rats

Chinenye E. Oguazu, Francis C. Ezeonu, Charles C. Dike, Charles G. Ikimi

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i230195

Background and Objectives: Living organisms are exposed to oxidant agents constantly from both endogenous and exogenous sources. One of such oxidant agent is Bisphenol A (BPA) and its exposure is capable to modify biomolecules and induce damages. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a contaminant with increasing exposure. It exerts toxic effects on cells.  This study investigates the possibility of BPA exposure on Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) perturbations at prevailing low exposure doses in female albino Wistar rats, following exposure for the period of three (3) month. Materials and Methods: Total 12 groups were formed; out of which 11 experimental groups, each containing 10non-pregnant female rats were administered; 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1 mg of BPA/kgbw/day. To the 12th control group was given water.  Blood was collected from animals at the end of every week of the study and serum sample specimens analyzed by routine diagnostic procedures for oxidized LDL such as malondialdehyde modified- LDL (MDA-LDL), oxidized phospholipids LDL (OX-PL LDL), N (epsilon) (carboxymethyl) lysine-modified-LDL (CML LDL) and 4-hydroxynonenal-LDL (HNE-LDL) using Autochemical Analyzer.

Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum oxidized LDL such as MDA-LDL, OX-PL LDL, CML LDL and HNE-LDL were observed at all concentrations of BPA exposure.

Conclusion:  Bisphenol A alters oxidized LDL such as MDA-LDL, OX-PL LDL, CML LDL and HNE-LDL balance and causes disturbance of internal oxidative statues.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ethanol Extract of the Fruiting Bodies of Pleurotus Ostreatus on Serum Lipid Profile and Atherogenic Indices of HS-HFD-STZ Induced Diabetic Rats

P. N. Okoroh, Sam Onuoha, A. A. Uwakwe, C. Y. Ukegbu

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 11-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i230196

The effect of ethanol extract of the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus on serum lipid profile  and atherogenic indices of high sucrose high fat diet streptozotocin (HS-HFD-STZ) induced diabetic rats was determined by standard methods. All the groups were fed high sucrose-high fat diet except the normal group. The Metformin HCl and ethanol extract was given once daily by gavage to the reference and experimental groups respectively at doses of 150mg/Kg b.w., 50mg/Kg   b.w, 150mg/Kg b.w. and 300mg/Kg b.w. respectively while the normal control received saline solution.  The HDL-cholesterol level was higher than the value of the disease group after 6 weeks of administration of extract at 300mg/kg and after 9 weeks administration of extract at 150mg/kg. HDL cholesterol concentration increased by 22.2% after 6 weeks of extract administration at 300mg/kg and by 16.7% and 28.3% respectively after 9 weeks of extract administration at 150mg/kg and 50mg/kg respectively, indicating that the POE extract has the capacity to reduce cardiovascular diseases. At all the doses of extract administered for treatment at 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 9 weeks intervals, there was dose and time dependent lowering of LDL: HDL ratio even below the recommended risk limit of ≤ 2.5 compared to the test control with value above 2.5. After 3 weeks of treatment with extract at administration concentration level of 150mg/kg, atherogenic indices were lowered and extract levels of 150mg/kg and 300mg/kg reduced atherogenic index value after 6 weeks of administration while after 9 weeks of treatment, extract at 150mg/kg concentration reduced atherogenic indices. The atherogenic indices of the diabetic animals under treatment were dose-and time dependently reduced by POE treatment as observed in this study.These results suggest a possible use of the extracts in the management of hyperlipidemic conditions, hypertension and associated complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Growth and Fertility Hormones of Albino Rats Exposed to Quarry Dust at a Quarry Industry

Francis Ugochukwu Madu, Emmanuel Iroha Akubugwo, Friday Obinwa Uhegbu, Miracle Chinwenmeri Madu

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 22-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i230197

Aim: Growth and fertility hormones of albino rats exposed to quarry dust were evaluated to determine if the inhaled quarry dust and heavy metals contained in it have any effect on the fertility and growth of the rats.

Methods: Sixty (30 in each of wet and dry seasons) male albino rats were used in this study and were housed in six (6) sterilized plastic cages with five (5) rats in each cage at Ugwuele quarry industry Uturu. The control (group 1) was housed at a distance of 7.2km from the quarry site. Group 2 was housed at the administration block of the quarry industry while groups 3,4,5,6 were housed at the gate, plant house, drilling pit and crusher positions of the quarry industry respectively. Heavy metals; lead, chromium, cobalt, arsenic, zinc and cadmium from dust samples were analyzed with atomic absorption spectrophotometer while assay for hormones was also carried out using standard analytical methods.

Results: All the analyzed heavy metals were present in the dust. Concentrations of heavy metals in the quarry dust were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the control and higher in the dry season than in the wet season. Concentrations of prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) in the test samples were significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the control while the concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the test samples were significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to the control. Results also show that the concentrations of prolactin, FSH, LH and GH were lower in the dry season than in the wet season whereas, the concentrations of TSH in the exposed rats were higher in the dry season than in the wet season. 

Conclusion: Growth rate and fertility of the albino rats may have been compromised by the exposure to the quarry dust, since the growth and fertility hormones were all reduced.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of the Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of some Ethno medicinal Plants in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

Idris Aliyu Kankara, Akos Noel Ibrahim, Haruna Ade

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 40-48
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i230199

Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder associated with the development of metabolic complications. This research evaluated the hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic effects of Moringa oleifera (MO), Treculia africana (TA) and Albizzia chevalieri (AC) plant extracts on diabetes. Albino rats were randomly divided into six (six) main groups; MC, MO, TA, AC, Normal Control (NC) and Diabetic Control (DC) groups. Group MO, TA and AC were further subdivide into three sub groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single dose intraperitoneal injection of alloxan 150 mg/kg body weight. Fasting blood glucose level and lipid profile were assayed using standard methods. Intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg of Alloxan in the albino rats resulted in significant (p<0.05) elevation of serum glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C), and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Also, there was significant decrease (p<0.05) in HDL-C and body weight of the albino rats compared with that of the NC group. Oral administration of MO, TA and AC to diabetic albino rats for 21 days significantly (p<0.05) reduced fasting blood glucose level, normalized lipid profile and restore body weight of the albino rats in treated groups compared to diabetic control groups. All the plant extracts studied in this research significantly (p<0.05) increase the regeneration of damaged pancreatic β cells. Treatment with MO (800 mg/kg) confirmed highly significant (p<0.05) effect compared to TA and AC.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Evaluation of Physalis peruviana L.’s Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Biochemical Activities

Nuri Gulesci, Guzide Yücebilgic, Ramazan Bilgin

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 30-39
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i230198

In this review, it was emphasized that natural and organic foods have a rich structure in terms of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and vitamin content. Physalis peruviana L., products contain minerals, amino acids, withanolides, flavonoids, and essential fatty acids, thus representing good sources of these compounds. These compounds have protective, regulatory, and nutritional roles in metabolism. Physalis peruviana L. is a wild fruit that has been widely used for centuries, mainly in folk medicine. The fruit and juice of Physalis peruviana L., contain high amounts of vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K1, and many other mineral substances. In addition, the ingredients in Physalis peruviana L., have antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic effects. The available evidence has demonstrated the nutritional value of different products of Physalis peruviana L., suggesting them to be potential candidates for use in the cosmetic industry, in the preparation of functional foods, and phytomedicine for the prevention.