Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Chitosan Nanoparticles in Improving Hepatic and Renal Toxicity Induced by Silver Nanoparticles Coated by Fe3O4 in Rats

Hadeer ElBadry, Afaf El-Atrash, Somaya Abdelhalim, Ehab Tousson

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i330200

Aims: Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are an important class of nanomaterials used as antimicrobial agents for a wide range of medical and industrial applications.Current study was performed to study the therapeutic effects of chitosan nanoparticles extract towards the treatments with Ag NPs in rat induced kidney and liver damage.

Study Design: A total of 60 male adult albino rats were equally divided into six groups (G1, Control group; G2, chitosan group; G3, Ag NPs group as acute toxicity; G4, acute Ag NPs+Chitosan group; G5, Ag NPs group as chronic toxicity; G6, chronic Ag NPs+Chitosan).

Results: Current results revealed that; a significant increase in the levels of serum ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride ions and MDA in liver and kidney tissues after treatments with Ag NPs (in case of acute and chronic toxicity) as compared to control group. In contrast; a significant decrease in serum albumin, total proteins, calcium ions, SOD, catalase and GSH in liver and kidney tissues after treatments with Ag NPs as compared to control groups. Treatment of Ag NPs with Chitosan nanoparticles (Ch NPs) improved this change in liver and kidney functions as compared to Ag NPs.

Conclusion: These findings suggested that the misuse of silver nanoparticles may contribute to continuous hepatic and renal damage. This shows that the desired dose of Ag NPs can safely be used with Chitosan in improving hepatic and renal damage in toxic group in young rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biodegradation Capacity and Activity Enzymatic of Bacillus subtilis against Low-Density Polyethylene

Ivana Ortega Rojas, Adriana Rodríguez Pérez, Juan Fernando Cárdenas González, Víctor Manuel Martínez Juárez, Erika Enriquez Domínguez, Juana Tovar Oviedo, Ismael Acosta Rodríguez

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 9-22
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i330201

Aims: The objective of this work was to determine the degradation capacity of low-density polyethylene by the bacterium Bacillus subtilis and analyze the production of extracellular laccase activity.

Methodology: The experiments was realized in 50 mL of culture medium, added with a fragment of known dry weight (1 cm2 colorless polyethylene bag squares), and were incubated at 28°C, pH 6.5, for 6 months under static conditions, determining the growth of the bacterium by dry weight (68, 75, and 91 mg), the production of extracellular protein (271, 234, and 326.1 mg/mL), and the degradation of the substrate by dry biodegraded (8.57%, 5.88%, and 11.76%).

Results: The production of extracellular laccase enzyme was analyzed in presence of polyethylene, finding an enzymatic activity of laccase of 2.06, 1.49, and 2,03 U/mL, while in the control without substrate, no enzymatic activity was observed, which suggests that this enzyme may participate in the degradation of polyethylene. In addition, some characteristics of the extracellular enzymatic activities were analyzed, such as stability at 4oC and 28oC, optimal pH and temperature, the effect of protein and substrate concentration.

Conclusion: The extracellular protein production and dry weight of the bacterium are higher in the presence of low-density polyethylene. The laccase activity is very stable at 4oC and 28oC, the most effective pH and temperature, were 4.5 and 28oC, and present an incubation time of 5 minutes, and this data suggest that this enzymatic activitiy may participate in the degradation of low density polyethylene.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Some Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metal Ions on the Initial Reaction Rates of Congregibacter litoralis KT71 β-lactamase Hydrolysis of 4-Nitrophenyl Myristate

O. M. Iniaghe, O. Ibukun

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 23-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i330202

The effects of some alkali metal ions (Na+ and K+) and alkaline earth metal ions (Mg 2+ and Ba2+) on the initial reaction rates of Congregibacter litoralis KT71 β-lactamase hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl myristate was investigated by varying the concentrations of the metal ions in the assay mixture which comprised of 100 µl of standard enzyme solution, 200 µl of varying concentration of metal ions, 500 µl of 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.5 and 200 µl of 4-nitrophenyl myristate (substrate) which was added last to the assay mixture after an incubation time of 10 minutes at 44 oC. The enzyme activity was measured spectrophotometrically using a UV-780 recording spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 405 nm. The hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl myristate to yield 4-nitrophenol was monitored by reading the absorbance at 25 minutes. Results showed that the alkaline earth metal ions (Ba2+ and Mg2+) had higher enzyme activation effect than the alkali metal ions (K+ and Na+) Also, all metal ions except Mg2+ showed enzyme stimulatory effect at low concentrations (<2 mM) but inhibitory at higher ion concentrations (2 mM - 3 mM). Mg 2+ caused a proportionate decrease in enzyme activity from its peak (when metal ion concentration was lowest). Results from this research is of great significance to the industrialist especially where the search for novel lipases with unique characteristics suitable for the industries are inevitable.