Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Evaluation of Moringa oleifera Leaves and the Effect of Its Bio-fortification with Animal Feed on Physical Changes and Organ Weights in Male Albino Rats

Peter Folorunsho Ayodele, Oyeleke Oyedotun, Olayinka Fisayo Onifade, Abiola Muhammad Adeosun, Ifeoluwa Adebayo Odeniyi, Olaniyi Stephen Omowaye, Mohammad Akram

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i430206

The current research investigated the nutritional value of the Moringa oleifera leaves Four diets, different in their composition were used on sixteen male albino rats (n=4). Commercial vitamins and minerals premix (75.0 g) were used solely in diet 1; diet 2 contained 37.5 g of the vitamin-mineral premix and 37.5 g MOL. Diet 3 contained 19.0 g of vitamin-mineral premix and 56.0 g of MOL. Diet 4 contained only MOL (75.0 g) as the sole source of vitamins and minerals. Diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 were provided for groups A (control), B, C and D respectively. Nutritional evaluation of the Moringa oleifera leaves contained protein (28.23±0.02%), dry matter (25.56±05%), Calcium (723.01 ±0.11 mg), Magnesium (677.28±0.00 mg) and Zinc (214.51±0.02 mg). Concerning the respective diets on feed consumption, bodyweight gain and growth performance, results showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in dose-dependent manners compared with control (A). Groups C and D showed a significant decrease (p > 0.05) in the efficiency of feed conversion when compared to control. The organs of all the test groups showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) in weight compared to control. Conclusively, the study suggests the use of MOL may be needful only as a supplement, condiment or ingredient to enrich diets with essential vitamins and minerals but not for growth or bodyweight gain.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Xylopia aethiopica Fruit on Cadmium-induced Inflammatory Changes and Dyslipidemic Rats

Peter Folorunsho Ayodele, Dorcas Ibukun Akinloye, Adio Jaimiu Akamo, David Adejare Agboola, Oluseyi Adeboye Akinloye

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 9-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i430207

The extensive utilization of cadmium (Cd) in industry is a major cause of environmental health menace to humans and animals. This study was to investigate the protective effects of Xylopia aethiopica fruit ethanol extract (XAFEE) on cadmium-induced inflammation and dyslipidemia in male albino rats. Thirty albino rats weighing 120–180 g were randomly selected into six groups (n = 5). A: control rats (administered distilled water only), B: Cd alone group (10 mg/ kg bw), C: Cd + 150 mg/kgbw XAFEE, D: Cd + 300 mg/kgbw XAFEE, E: 150 mg/kgbw XAFEE and F: 300 mg /kgbw XAFEE group. After 2-week acclimatization and 21 days of the experiment, blood sample was collected via cardiac puncture. Changes in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin 10 (IL-10), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipids and free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations in serum were determined. The results of the present study indicated that Cd exposure remarkably increased (p < 0.05) the TC, TAG, phospholipids, FFAs and TNF-α concentrations, and significantly decreased IL-10 concentration (p < 0.05) compared with control. These findings suggest that inflammatory changes and alterations in lipid metabolism might be one of the mechanisms underlying the subtle effects of Cd-induced inflammation and dyslipidemia. XAFEE expressed protective role against the toxic influence of Cd on affected parameters. The results raised the possibility of Xylopia aethiopica fruit being considered as a condiment in soup, local drinks, supplements or herbs preparations in areas where people have chances to Cd exposure, occupationally or environmentally.

Open Access Original Research Article

Induction of Extracellular Lytic Enzymes from Aureobasidium pullulans

Adriana Rodríguez Pérez, Monica Banda Gómez, Juan Fernando Cárdenas González, Víctor Manuel Martínez Juárez, Erika Enriquez Domínguez, Juana Tovar Oviedo, Dalila Contreras Briones, Ismael Acosta Rodríguez

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 18-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v9i430208

Aims: The objective of this work was to analyze the production of some extracellular lytic enzymes of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans.

Methodology: The fungus was isolated from Valencian orange and was cultivated on Mathur medium modified with polygalacturonic acid (2% w/v) or xylan (2% w/v) as a carbon source, and they were incubated at 28°C, with constant stirring at 100 rpm, and at different times, the supernatant was harvested by filtration, and the extracellular lytic activity was determined by the Nelson method modified by Somogy, as well as the extracellular protein by the Lowry method.

Results: The production of extracellular polygalacturonase and xylanase was induced, finding that the former has an optimal induction time at 7 days, with glutamic acid as a nitrogen source, and is stable at 4°C and 28°C and an optimal temperature and activity times of 60-80°C and 4 hours, while xylanase presents an optimal induction time of 9 days, with glutamic acid as nitrogen source, and very stable at 4 and 28°C, with optimal temperature and time of activity of 28°C and 8 hours.

Conclusion: The fungus exhibits both polygalacturonase and xylanase activity. The polygalacturonase activity has a maximum induction time at 7 days, while xylanase has an optimal induction time at 9 days of incubation at 28°C. The xylanase activity was very stable at 4°C and 28°C, as it retains an activity of 100% at both temperatures after five days of incubation, while polygalacturonase retains 82.5% of its initial activity at 4°C, and 56.7% at 28°C.