Open Access Original Research Article

Prostaglandins and Thromboxane Status in Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases in Ekiti State, Nigeria

M. F. Asaolu, A. A. Sonuga, S. O. Ajiboye

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2018/v2i3487

Aims: Prostaglandins and Thromboxane A2 are prostanoids, with platelet aggregator and vasoconstrictor properties. This study was carried out to assess the prostaglandins and thromboxane status of patients with cardiovascular diseases in Ekiti State, Nigeria. 

Study Design: This is a comparative study.

Methodology: Two hundred patients with various cardiovascular diseases (Stroke, Ischemic heart disease, Hypertension, Hypertension with diabetes and Hypertension with Obesity) were recruited from Federal Teaching Hospital, Iddo Ekiti and Ekiti State Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti. Thirty subjects without cardiovascular diseases were used as a control. Their age range was between 30 and 90 years. Plasma prostaglandin, PGD-2, PGE-1 and thromboxane TXA2 were evaluated in all groups by the use of Enzyme-Linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The data obtained was subjected to student t-test and ANOVA. 

Results: The results showed a significant increase (P>0.05) in the plasma levels of prostaglandin  (PGD-2, PGE-1) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) in all the cardiovascular groups when compared with the control. Plasma levels of TXA2 were found to be significantly higher (P>0.05) in stroke patients when compared with the other type of diseased cardiovascular patients.

Conclusion: This study shows that the assessment of plasma prostaglandin and thromboxane levels in cardiovascular disease could be an essential tool in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Experimental Model of Hepatic Steatosis to Detect Lipid Accumulation

Maryam Ammani Lawal, Gregory Elayeche Oko, Emmanuel Paul Okoi, Khuyen Thi Kim Vo, Shuaib Samirah Isah

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2018/v2i3497

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Obesity occurs as a result of an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure leading to excessive accumulation of adipose tissue. NAFLD is the most common liver condition and related to the resistance of insulin. Insulin resistance is associated with an increased influx of lipid into the liver promoting accumulation of hepatic triglyceride. This study aims to develop an experimental model of hepatic steatosis with lipid over-accumulation. HepG2 cells were cultured for 24 hours in free fatty acid media (1:2 palmitic acid and oleic acid respectively). Intracellular lipid content and lipotoxicity were determined by oil red O staining followed by colorimetric detection. This experiment was accomplished by defining the experimental conditions of lipid exposure that leads to significant intracellular fat accumulation in the absence of lipotoxicity with 1 mM of free fatty acid media. As a result, oleic and palmitic acids could be over-accumulated in HepG2 cells. 1 mM free fatty acid media did not affect the cell integrity and did not cause lipotoxicity of the cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro and In vivo Studies on Mulberry Extracts: Evaluation of Chemical and Anticancer Activities and Attenuation of Lead Toxicity

Eman S. Ramis, Gihan M. Hammoud, Khaled M. ElSawy

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2018/v2i3525

Lead (Pb) is one of the environmental pollutants. There has been a serious concern in the recent past regarding natural source for protection or curing from lead. The aim of the present study is evaluation and comparing of mulberry leaves and fruits extracts in protection from lead toxicity on the brain and testes of rats, as well as determination of their chemical activity and anticancer effect on hepatocarcinoma (HEPG2) and colon cancer cell line (HTC). Leaves extract showed higher results than fruits extract in total phenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activities in both radical scavenging activity (DPPH) and ferric reducing power tests (FRAP). Leaves and fruits extracts exerts almost have the same killing effect on (HEPG2). Leaves extract has slight better killing power on (HTC) than fruits extract. In the experiment on rats; leaves showed more efficiency in a time dependent manner in ameliorating the harmful effect of lead on blood parameter like white and red blood cells, hemoglobin, cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Both leaves and fruits extracts have protective effect from injury induced by lead on tissues of rat testes, however, they showed little protective effect on brain tissue. In conclusion, mulberry leaves and fruits have considerable active compounds and antioxidant properties which are useful as anticancer agents. Moreover they showed protective effect against lead toxicity which induced anemia, metabolic disorder and tissue injury.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Potential of Aqueous Extracts of Plant Leaves to inhibit Pathogenic Fungi

Liamngee Kator, Zakki Yula Hosea

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2018/v2i3535

The in vitro potential of aqueous extracts of plant leaves to inhibit pathogenic fungi was carried out. The effect of leaf extract and concentration on growth inhibition of organism I (Aspergillus flavus) in vitro revealed that a concentration of 100g/mL, Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) gave the highest growth inhibition of  (59.14) followed by Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract (NLE) (49.70) and Bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina)  extract (BLE) (45.84) respectively while the least growth inhibition on organism 1 (Aspergillus flavus) was by MLE at concentration of 40 g/mL (30.11) followed by NLE at 60 g/mL (32.11) and BLE at 40 g/mL (40.13). On organism 2 (Penicillium waksmanii), MLE at a concentration of 100 g/mL gave the highest growth inhibition of (50.49) followed by NLE (49.01) and BLE (36.72) respectively while the least inhibition on growth of organism 2 in vitro was by BLE at concentration of 60 g/mL (16.05) followed by MLE (40.70) and NLE (40.70) at concentration of 80 g/mL respectively. On organism 3 (Botryodiplodia theobromae), MLE at  concentration of 100 g/mL gave the highest inhibition of growth (57.00) followed by NLE (52.71) and BLE (50.15) respectively while  the least inhibition on growth of organism 3 in vitro was by BLE at 40 g/mL (21.50) followed by MLE at 60 g/mL (31.06) and NLE at 40 g/mL (41.89). On organism 4 (Fusarium oxysporum), the highest growth inhibition was by MLE at 100g/mL (54.02) followed by NLE at 100 g/mL (49.62) and BLE at 100 g/mL (44.41) while MLE showed the least growth inhibition at 60 g/mL (24.04) followed by BLE at 40 g/mL  (26.60) and NLE at 40 g/mL (30.12). NLE showed the highest grand inhibitory effect of extract concentration on growth inhibition of organism 5 (Colletotrichum asianum) in vitro at 100 g/mL (53.68) followed by MLE at 100 g/mL (51.51) and BLE at 100 g/mL (40.94). The least inhibitory effect on the growth of organism 5 in vitro was by BLE at 80 g/mL (21.26) followed by NLE at 40 g/mL (22.25) and MLE at 40 g/mL (32.69). The controls ranged from 2.23 to 4.31 across all extract concentrations and fungal isolates. There were significant differences in growth inhibition between extract concentrations and their controls on all fungal isolates. The use of plant extracts provides alternative means for controlling plant pathogenic fungi.

Open Access Review Article

Ethnomedicinal Use, Phytochemical Constituents and Bioactivity of Wild Edible Fruits Commonly Consumed in Burkina Faso

Ablassé Rouamba, Moussa Compaoré, Martin Kiendrebeogo

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2018/v2i3530

The screening of bioactive phytochemical constituents in edible fruits and vegetable is interesting to researchers owing their benefit property on consumer’s health. Fruits are used ethnomedicinally to treat numerous diseases including metabolic and microbial diseases. They are also used in human or animal nutrition because of their high energy value and their mineral contents. The pharmacological proprieties of fruits include antioxidant, anticancer, anti-mutagenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anti-neurodegenerative properties. These bioactive compounds are among others flavonoids, phenolic, anthocyanin, phenolic acids, stilbenes, tannins, as well as sugars, essential oils, carotenoids, vitamins, and minerals.  This review summarizes the ethnomedicinal use, the phytochemical constituents and the bioactivity of wild edible fruits commonly consumed in Burkina Faso.