Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Bactericidal and Fungicidal Efficacy of Strychno spotatorum Linn. (Nirmali) Seeds

Chandiran Sharmila, Rajendiran Selvam, Sorimuthu Pillai Subramanian

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i130169

Aim: Diseases due to pathogenic microbes pose a great burden on human health and they have been correlated with socioeconomic, environmental, and ecological factors. The threat due to infectious diseases is further intensified by the continued emergence of new and multidrug resistant microorganisms. This scenario warrants a continuous search for antimicrobial agents preferably of plant origin due to their availability, accessibility, and affordability. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal properties of Strychnos potatorum Linn (Nirmali) seeds using common pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains.

Methodology: Fresh and matured S. potatorum seeds were used for the present study. The powdered seeds were delipidated with petroleum ether (60-80°C) overnight and the extract was filtered. Soxhalation was performed with 95% ethanol to extract the phyto-ingredients from the seeds. Four Gram positive, four Gram negative, and eight fungal strains were used. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion and well diffusion methods. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC), Minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were assayed.

Results: The data obtained through the disc diffusion, well diffusion, the minimum bactericidal concentration, and minimum fungicidal concentrations revealed that the ethanolic extract of the seeds possesses significant antibacterial and antifungal activities. The results obtained were compared with standard drugs widely prescribed for antimicrobial therapy.

Conclusion: The present study provides the scientific rationale for the use of Strychnos potatorum seeds in traditional medicine and a rich source of phytochemicals having significant antimicrobial activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Nutrients Content and Characterization of Oil from Two Varieties of Tiger Nut (Cyperus esculentus)

A. M. Gadanya, M. Y. Abubakar, F. U. Maigari, L. Mudassir, S. M. Abubakar

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 11-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i130170

Background: Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) belong to the family of Cyperaceae and the order of Commelinalis. It has been existing for more than 4,000 years ago.

Objective: To determine the nutritional composition (protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture and carbohydrate) of nut, to extract and characterize oil from varieties of tiger nuts, to determine the mineral elements presence in the nut.

Study Design: A descriptive research design was adopted by this study to determine the nutritional composition (protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture and carbohydrate) of nut, to extract and characterize oil from varieties of tiger nuts and to determine the mineral elements presence in the nut.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted at Biochemistry Department, Bayero University Kano, between April, 2019 to September, 2019.

Methods: The Proximate compositions were determined using the method describe by Association of official analytical chemist’s, while Carbohydrate were determined by difference. The physicochemical properties were determined using the method describe by American oil Chemist’s society and Mineral composition were determined.

Results: The proximate composition of the yellow variety was moisture (9.48%), ash (2.07%), fat (33.5%), protein (6.11%), crude fibre (17.5%) and carbohydrate (31.2%). Corresponding values of the brown variety was moisture (9.62%), ash (2.76%), fat (34.2%), protein (6.93%), crude fibre (15.3%) and carbohydrate (30.9%) respectively. The extracted oil has a golden colour and a nutty taste. The saponification, acid, peroxide, iodine and free fatty acid values of the yellow variety were found to be 210.8±4.28, 3.17±0.64, 1.00±0.52, 78.7±13.1 and 0.40±0.21 and the saponification, acid, peroxide, iodine and free fatty acid values of the yellow variety were also found to be 212.2±4.92, 3.36±0.56, 1.06±0.75, 76.5±14.6 and 0.42±0.04 and was not significantly (P> 0.05) different between th yellow and brown varieties respectively. The mineral element (mg/100g) of the brown variety is Mg 133.67, P 527.33, K 957.67, Ca 394, Cu 2.0 and Fe 1.86. Corresponding values for the yellow variety are Mg 118.13, P 159.61, K 384.33, Ca 152, Cu 2.0 and Fe 1.04. Lead and Cadmium were not detected in both varieties.

Conclusion: These results indicate that tiger nut tuber oil could be a good source of edible oil, highly nutritive and can provide a lot of energy like some starchy food.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Bioactive Chemical Compounds of Leaves Extracts from Tamarindus indica Using FT-IR and GC-MS Spectroscopy

Mansour Abdulnabi H. Mehdi, Abdul-hakim M. A. Al- Alawi, Ahmed Zain A. Thabet, Fadel Y. S. Alarabi, Gozif Mohammed N. Omar, Vidya Pradhan

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 22-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i130171

Tamarindus indica is one of the medicinal plants used in the treatment of various diseases traditionally.

Aims: This study was conducted to identify the phytochemical constituents of T. indica leaf extracts. Methods: Using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identification of bioactive compounds in extracts of T. indica.

Results: The FT-IR spectrum confirmed the presence of alcohol group, alkene group, amine group, carbonates, ethers, carboxylic acid and disulfides in both extracts.

A total of 22 and 38 bioactive phytochemical compounds were identified in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of T. indica, respectively. The major bioactive compounds of the ethanolic extract of T. indica leaves were cis-Vaccenic acid, trans-13-Octadecenoic acid, Oleic Acid, Octadecanoic acid, Octadecanoic acid, 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy) ethyl ester, Eicosanoic acid and Eicosane, 1-Iodo-2-methylundecane, 10-Methylnonadecane. While the major bioactive compounds of the aqueous extract were 3-O-Methyl-d-glucose, Myo-Inositol, 4C-methyl-, Myo-Inositol, 2-C-methyl-, Propane, 2,2-dimethoxy-, 1,3-Dioxolane, Ethanol, 2-(1-methylethoxy)-, and 2-Pentanone, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-, 2-Hexanol, 2-methyl-, Ethanamine, N-methyl.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Anti-lipid Peroxidation and Other Antioxidant Potentials of Gongronema latifolium Leaf Extract

Tebekeme Okoko, Daniel I. Silas-Olu

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 35-41
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i130172

Gongronema latifolium is a herbaceous plant consumed as a traditional folk medicine. The aim of this work is to evaluate the anti-lipid peroxidation activity and other antioxidant effects of the plant leaf extract of Gongronema latifolium using various in vitro models. Lipid peroxidation was first induced in egg yolk and bovine liver homogenate using the ascorbate-ferrous system and incubated with the plant extract at different concentrations. In another experiment, hydrogen peroxide was used to induce erythrocyte hemolysis and lipid peroxidation and those erythrocytes were incubated with the extract. Finally the potential ferrous reducing ability, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities of the plant extract were also analyzed. It revealed that the leaf extract significantly reduced chemically-induced lipid peroxidation in both homogenates when compared to quercetin. The extract also reduced both hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes. The extract also possessed significant abilities to reduce ferric ions, scavenge both hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. In most cases, the responses were concentration-dependent (p < 0.05). The findings are ascribed to the important phytochemicals which are antioxidant in nature hence the plant could be exploited both pharmacologically and neutraceutically.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-Chemical Properties of Purified Carboxylesterase from the Seeds of Tamarindus indica

S. Kantharaju, M. Mylarappa

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 42-58
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i130173

The present work is focus on physical and chemical properties of purified Carboxylesterase using the Seeds of Tamarindus Indica.The esterases are extracted from the germinating tamarind seeds using 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7 and purified. The Km with α-naphthyl acetate, β-naphthyl acetate and α-naphthyl butyrate as the substrates is 28.6 μM, 22.2 μM and 26.7 μM respectively. The Vmax for the same substrates is 7.1 x 10-3 µmole/min, 7.41 x 10-3 µmole/min and 8.00 x 10-3 µmole/min respectively. The enzymes optimally active at pH 7.0 and are stable between pH 5.0 to 8.0. The optimum temperature of esterase activity is 40˚C. The molecular weight of 27.5 kD as determined by SDS-PAGE, both in the presence and absence of β-mercaptothanol and is in close agreement with the molecular weight determined by gel-filtration on Sephadex G-100 (26.9 kD).

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Determination of Biochemical Constituents of the Wild Food Plant Talinum triangulare (Jacqu) Wild (Big Purslane)

Florent Biduaya Mukeba, Archil Ndub Ilunga, Prince Bofati Ilonga, Gédéon Ngiala Bongo, Myriam Ngondo Mukadi, Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Johnny Bopopi Mukoko, Nadège K. Ngombe, Paulin Kapepula Mutwale, Franck Kinungi Banzola

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 59-70
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2021/v8i130174

The Democratic Republic of the Congo is one of the major biodiversity hotspot in the world. Wild edible plants (WEPs) are widely consumed as part of daily diet by the local people and are part of their traditional culture and food habit. The T. triangulare species is a non-conventional vegetable crop of the Talinaceae family. It is well adapted to the hot and humid climate and the poor quality soil, which makes its cultivation an important economic activity for small growers. However, mere enumeration of such plants is not enough. A thorough assessment of their nutritive values is of paramount importance to find out how to make best use of them. The present work deals with the biochemichal analysis of the nutritive values of non-conventional food plant T. triangulare with pink and white flowers. Freshly collected seeds, barks, roots leaves samples were first washed with tap water and then distilled water and dried in air, away from the sun till constant weight was recorded. From this moisture percentage was computed and chemical analysis was on dry weight basis. It appears from this study that the leaves of T. triangulare have a moisture content of 93%, which is slightly higher than the values given successively (90.8%) for T. triangulare (Jacq.). The mineral matter or ash content of leaves is 18.7%. The total protein found by us in the leaves presents a rate (2.4%). The protein rate on dry matter in the leaves is higher (2.27%) than that found in the roots 1.13%, stems 1.75% and seeds 1.44%. This rate varies considerably depending on the season. The fat content found in the leaves is 0.326%, it is lower than that found in the roots 0.366% and that found in the stems 0.38%, the fat content found in the seeds is lower compared to the others. The carbohydrate content analysed in the leaves is 0.07%, lower than that found in roots (2.614%), stems (3.58%) and seeds (3.16%). The present study revealed that T. triangulare is excellent sources of protein and minerals with moderate level of crude fibre and excellent sources of crude fibre with good amount of minerals. There is a general misconception that non-conventional leafy vegetables as well as other edible plants are nutritionally poor and hence unimportant.