Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibitory Effect of Gedunin Analogue against the Plasmodium falciparum Dihydrofolate Reductase

V. Amarachukwu Arazu, Christian Nelson, Uzoeto O. Henrietta, Ayodele Akinwonmi, A. Solomon Ochepo, Cosmas Samuel

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2022/v11i130234

Objective: Plasmodium parasites are the cause of malaria. Malaria victims get infected upon being bitten by female anopheles mosquito; which transmits the parasite to the victim. The P. falciparum and P. vivax are the most active disease-causing agents of all five malaria-causing species of Plasmodium. The anti-folate drugs which were the first class of clinical antimetabolites act by disrupting metabolic pathways in which the one-carbon moiety supplied by the B9 folate vitamins is a major requirement.

Methods: Chemical structures of the anti-folate drugs which served as the experimental control ligands were downloaded from the PubChem database and saved as PDB files while the gedunin modification was achieved using the Marvin-Sketch software.

Results: Molecular visualization of the polar interactions with amino acid residues of the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate-reductase showed that all the control ligands interacted with similar residues contrary to the interaction of the gedunin modified ligand in the same binding pocket.

Conclusion: Results from the molecular docking study showed that gedunin and its C=O of gedunin might be better antimalarial agents; having exhibited the best binding energies with a score of -9.5 and -9.0 Kcal/mol respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antiplasmodial and Haemolytic Activities of Trema orientalis, Cnestis ferruginea and Dialium dinklagei Used to Treat Malaria in Côte d’Ivoire

Karim Tuo, Sylvain Beourou, Kigbafori Dieudonné Silue, Allico Joseph Djaman, Adama Coulibaly, André Offianan Toure

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 11-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2022/v11i1202

Malaria constitutes one of the biggest health problems in tropical Africa due to the resistance of human malaria parasites to anti-malarial compounds. Research focused on plants used in traditional medicine to treat malaria is still a viable alternative for the creation of novel anti-malarial drugs. This study evaluated extracts from three medicinal plants, Trema orientalis, Cnestis ferruginea and Dialium dinklagei, used in traditional medicine in Côte d’Ivoire, for in vitro antiplasmodial activities. SYBR GREEN fluorescence method was used to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory activity of the extracts, chloroquine, artesunate and quinine against Plasmodium falciparum field isolates and two laboratory strains of Plasmodium falciparum: the chloroquine sensitive 3D7 and the chloroquine resistant Dd2. In comparison to plant extracts, chloroquine, quinine, and artesunate were chosen as reference antimalarials. In addition, the haemolytic activity of extracts showing good antiplasmodial activity was evaluated. The IC50 and the corresponding correlation coefficients were determined graphically, using In vitro Analysis and Reporting Tool (IVART) software of WWARN (Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network). Results showed that no plant was active with the hexanolic extract. Trema orientalis had moderate activity with the methanolic extract with activities ranging from 14.46µg/mL to 28.32µg/mL. Cnestis ferruginea was active with the decoction extracts with activities ranging from 11.78µg/mL to 13.94µg/mL. Dialium dinklagei was active with both methanolic and aqueous extracts ranging from 12.80µg/mL to 21.67µg/mL. There was less than 1% hemolysis at the concentration of 200 µg/mL of plant extracts. These results validate the reported traditional use of Trema orientalis, Cnestis ferruginea and Dialium dinklagei for malaria treatment in Côte d’Ivoire.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perturbation of Sex Hormones by Potassium Bromate and Preventive Effect of African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) Seed

C. E. Iwuoha, E. O. Ezirim, C. A. Onyeaghala, S. F. Orji, C. N. Ugwu, C. Igwenyi, C. L. Uche, I. O. Abali, O. I. N. Onyekachi, M. U. Nwobodo, F. U. Agu, N. M. Chika-Igwenyi, A. I. Airaodion

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 22-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2022/v11i1203

Background: African locust bean is used for medicinal purposes in African countries for the treatment of various diseases. However, no study has reported its ameliorative effect on sex hormones perturbations. This study, therefore, sought to investigate its preventive effect against potassium bromate-induced perturbation of sex hormones.

Methodology: African locust bean was extracted with soxhlet extractor with ethanol as the solvent. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were acclimatized under laboratory conditions and were randomly grouped into A, B, C and D. Group A was given distilled water orally. Animals in groups B, C and D were administered 100 mg/kg body weight of potassium bromate, but groups C and D were also treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of African locust bean respectively. Both potassium bromate and African locust bean were freshly prepared on daily basis and administered to rats by oral gavage. After 28 days of treatment, the animals were sacrificed under mild diethyl ether anaesthetization 24 hours after cessation of last treatment and blood was collected through cardiac puncture.

Results: Analyses showed that KBrO3 significantly reduced the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone but elevated the levels of prolactin and estradiol when compared with those in the control group. However, groups treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of African locust bean in conjunction with KBrO3 resisted these perturbations.

Conclusion: In this study potassium bromate increased the levels of estradiol which has been known to inhibit sex hormones. This effect of estradiol on sex hormones; LH, FSH and testosterone is further evidenced by the results of this study. The potential benefit of the African locust bean in the amelioration of perturbation of sex hormones is brought to the fore by the findings of this research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical and Thermodynamic Characterization of β amylase from Dioscorea alata L.

M. A. Fadunsin, O. A. T. Ebuehi, I. S. Akande, A. O. Kolawole

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 30-42
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2022/v11i1208

β-amylase (E.C.3.2.1.2) is a starch hydrolyzing enzyme fondly used in foods, pharmaceuticals, and brewing industries to convert starch into maltose. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical, kinetic, and thermodynamic properties, as well as the potential industrial use of β-amylase from Dioscorea alata L. Studying the enzyme stability with Arrhenius methods, showed that the enzyme was stable at a temperature range of 20–500C, and had good pH stability by retaining over 50 % of its initial activity over a wide range of pH from 4 – 8 and kinetic stability by increasing the half-life of the enzyme. The activation energy (Ea) for catalysis by water yam β-amylase at 250C was 6.45kcal/mol. The activation energy (Ea), half-life, free energy change (ΔG), enthalpy change (ΔH), and entropy change (ΔS) for inactivation at optimum temperature (400C) and pH 5 were 13.92 kcal/mol, 41.25 min, 20.89 kcal/mol, 13.30 kcal/mol and -24.25 cal/mol/K respectively. Km and Vmax values were reduced from 2.25 to 2.13mg/ml and 2.95 to 1.48 µmol/min/ml respectively. The optimum pH shifted from 5 to 6, while the Optimum temperature increased from 40 to 500C after immobilization. Enzyme retained up to 67 % activity after 5 cycles. The enzyme would be of importance in manufacturing companies based on the kinetics and application features reported in this study since it is a cheap and readily available source.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ecotourism Development in Sampangan Muncar Beach Banyuwangi

Ani Mulyasuryani, Eko Waluyo, Yuniar Ponco Prananto, Erlinda Indrayani

Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry, Page 43-53
DOI: 10.9734/ajrb/2022/v11i1209

Aims: This study aims to provide counseling on waste management and preservation of the coastal environment to support the development of ecotourism around Sampangan Beach as well as education using the pyrolysis method in waste management.

Study Design: To address the trash and ecotourism issues at Sampangan Beach, a pyrolysis device and a 3D model of the ecotourism beach were created.

Place and Duration of Study: This research was conducted at Sampangan Beach which is located in Sampangan Village, Muncar District, Banyuwangi Regency in June 2022 until July 2022.

Methodology: This study uses a qualitative approach by taking data through surveys to obtain facts from existing symptoms. Field observations and surveys of locals and visitors were conducted in preparation to ascertain the field circumstances at Sampangan Beach before constructing ecotourism beach tools and designs. Additionally, observations are done to learn about the issues, difficulties, and opportunities existing at the site. In addition, researchers read up on pyrolysis machinery and beach design in the literature. Waste management is carried out using the pyrolysis method. The population of this study is the apparatus of villages, environmental management, and communities living directly adjacent to coastal areas.

Results: Based on the analysis using a qualitative approach and waste management using the pyrolysis method, the results of the process of burning plastic waste using a pyrolysis tool are influenced by the type of plastic and the temperature of the reactor combustion. Pyrolysis combustion using 3 kg of LPG gas can be used in 3-4 waste-burning cycles, so this method is very good for reducing plastic waste, especially in the coastal area of Muncar Banyuwangi. As well as coastal communities with livelihoods as fishermen can reduce the cost of purchasing diesel by replacing fuel pyrolysis fuel when to catch fish. This 3D model concept that has been compiled follows the style of arranging places such as the beaches in Banyuwangi to increase tourist attraction and increase public comfort when traveling on Sampangan Beach.